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LineageOS, an Android Distribution can be installed on many Android devices, e.g. smartphones and tablets. But it usually needs a computer in the installation process. Is it possible to do it with Ubuntu Linux or is always a Windows system needed?

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Yes, you can! All or most of the steps of the installation LineageOS can be done in Ubuntu Linux, just follow the instructions on the wiki of LineageOS, the instructions depends on the device.

LineageOS can be installed with Ubuntu (only) on a lot of devices, e.g. Nexus 6P, Galaxy S9.

But for some devices access to Windows is needed for some parts of the installation, e.g. - unlock bootloader of XIAOMI phones.

In case Windows is needed you can use Virtualbox on your Ubuntu Linux computer:

  1. Install Virtualbox with a WindowsOS, see Virtualbox Wiki or this AU question.
  2. Be sure to install the Virtualbox extension pack is installed, see Virtual Box Wiki or this AU question.
  3. Activate USB 2.0 or 3.0 in the Virtualbox Settings: Enable USB Controller. enter image description here
  4. Open System->Administration->Users, and select your user name. Click "Manage Groups", and scroll down to vboxusers. Click "properties", the make sure your user ID is checked. Re-start VBOX and USB should work. Source: Softpedia.
  5. Then you should be able to connect your Android device with the Windows in the Virtualbox and e.g. do the steps needed to unlock your XIAOMI smartphone.
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    FYI, adding VirtualBox to a certain user group (I forget which exactly lol) is required in order for it to be able to access USB devices. – You'reAGitForNotUsingGit Jun 30 '18 at 12:46

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