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Warning: Before proceeding, make a backup of any data you may want to keep.
Note: You may use other tools to accomplish the same tasks. I mention
gparted because it is reliable and easy to use.
Background: Phones and other devices usually use
msdos partition tables (not
gpt) with FAT32 or exFAT partitions. The issue is not necessarily how the partition is formatted, but how the drive is initialized.
Wipe the partition table with
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx bs=1M count=1
/dev/sdx as appropriate to refer to your card. I intentionally do not put
/dev/sdb in the command to avoid unintentionally damaging drives by copying and pasting.
gparted. A message should pop up that says the drive needs to be
initialized (ie, the partition table need to be created). Pick the option that says
Format the card to
gparted (right click and look for appropriate options). If it does not work, try formatting as
sync and remove the card.
sync is unnecessary, but I like to run it in situations like this, just in case.
Check to see if the card now works with your phone. Then check if it works with other devices as intended.
If the card does not work, you may try formatting with
exFAT (step 3). No need to repeat wiping and initialization if the partition table or disk label type is
msdos or similar, not