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I installed Ubuntu MATE 18.04 and the installation went OK. It's an LNV laptop, with UEFI and all that Secure Boot nonsense. It was perfectly possible to install Linux besides Windows before; but after it came from repair it seems the UEFI boot ignores Linux. There's a BIOS screen with UEFI priorities, I put "ubuntu" in front but at boot it ignores that and boots Windows no matter what.

Is this something that can be fixed it by fudging files in the UEFI partition?

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There is package called boot-repair A quick intro to boot-repair

Boot Repair is a graphical tool that can repair GRUB2 with a single click. This is the ideal solution to boot problems for most users.

Boot your pc with live Ubuntu OS and then You can install boot-repair by following command

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:yannubuntu/boot-repair 
sudo apt-get update 
sudo apt-get install -y boot-repair 
boot-repair

The Boot Repair window will automatically scan your system after you run the boot-repair command. After it scans your system, click the “Recommended repair” button to repair GRUB2 with a single click.

I have copied from here This has always worked for me. I hope this will also works for you.

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@SaWin, I had the following output from boot-repair. Will reboot now and see what happens. (And maybe edit this answer.)

Edit 1: YAY! GRUB showed up and I'm posting this from the installed Ubuntu. Now let's see if booting Windows (8.1) doesn't re-f### EFI.

Edit 2: If I select "Windows Boot Manager (sda2)" I am still able to boot Ubuntu later. I will not try the other options GRUB came up with.

An error occurred during the repair.

Please write on a paper the following URL:
http://paste.ubuntu.com/p/VjSBmy9Xmm/

In case you still experience boot problem, indicate this URL to:
boot.repair@gmail.com 

You can now reboot your computer.
Please do not forget to make your BIOS boot on sda2/EFI/ubuntu/shimx64.efi file!

If your computer reboots directly into Windows, try to change the boot order in your BIOS.
If your BIOS does not allow to change the boot order, change the default boot entry of the Windows bootloader.
For example you can boot into Windows, then type the following command in an admin command prompt:
bcdedit /set {bootmgr} path \EFI\ubuntu\shimx64.efi

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