UDF is a free file system, that works with Linux and Windows.
There are problems in MacOS. I have no Apple computer, but I have read that MacOS can manage UDF. However, recent tests by @Unique, the OP, indicates that it does not work. There are different versions (of UDF), and we must conclude that the version described here is not supported by MacOS.
UDF supports linux symbolic links.
There is a detailed description how to install it in this AskUbuntu link:
Full compatibility with Linux, Windows and MacOS
Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a profile of the specification known as
ISO/IEC 13346 and ECMA-167 and is an open vendor-neutral file
system for computer data storage for a broad range of media. In
practice, it has been most widely used for DVDs and newer optical disc
formats, supplanting ISO 9660. Due to its design, it is very well
suited to incremental updates on both recordable and (re)writable
optical media. UDF is developed and maintained by the Optical Storage
Technology Association (OSTA).