Specify the size of blocks in bytes. Valid block-size values
are 1024, 2048 and 4096 bytes per block. If omitted, block-size
is heuristically determined by the filesystem size and the
expected usage of the filesystem (see the -T option). If block-
size is preceded by a negative sign ('-'), then mke2fs will use
heuristics to determine the appropriate block size, with the
constraint that the block size will be at least block-size
bytes. This is useful for certain hardware devices which
require that the blocksize be a multiple of 2k.
It seems to me that only block-size values 1024, 2048 and 4096 bytes are valid, but maybe these values are only examples. You can try with the option
sudo mkfs.ext4 -b 16384 /dev/sdxn
where x is the drive letter and n is the partition number. I tested in 16.04 with the xenial kernel (linux 4.4 series), and
mkfs.ext4: 16384-byte blocks too big for system (max 4096)
Proceed anyway? (y,n)
I continued to create the file system, but could not mount it because of errors, so the answer is No, it does not work, unless you mount it with some special method.