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The file; /etc/hosts

Static hostnames are locally defined hostname-to-IP mappings located in this file, and takes precedence over DNS.

related files;

  1. /etc/hosts.allow
  2. /etc/hosts.deny
  3. /etc/resolve.conf (the local dns file)

Recommended reading; https://help.ubuntu.com/10.04/serverguide/C/network-configuration.html - near the bottom, under Name Resolution

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