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1

Added also here: Cannot mount second drive at "/" Update: the overlayfs file-system has been promoted to standard kernel for version 3.18. So now there is an official union-type solution for linux; userspace utility to simplify its use will surely follow. For now, documentation is in the kernel tree at Documentation/filesystems/overlayfs.txt.


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tree is another useful command for this job: Just install it via sudo apt-get install tree and type the following: tree --du -h /path/to/directory ... ... 33.7M used in 0 directories, 25 files From man tree: -h Print the size of each file but in a more human readable way, e.g. appending a size letter for kilo‐ bytes (K), megabytes (M), ...


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Use df -H instead. The difference you see is because of the difference in real GBs/TBs (factor of 1024) and sales men's GBs/TBs (factor of 1000).


2

From this line /dev/sdb1 on /media/nuc/500GB type fuseblk (rw,nosuid,nodev,allow_other,default_permissions,blksize=4096) I see that external drive filesystem is NTFS and it was by default mounted without respect to NTFS permissions. In this case all files/directories will have the same permissions and attempts to change them will be ignored. I have solved ...


2

If you were in your home folder, then you deleted your entire Desktop folder... Re-creating it with these should work: cd ~ mkdir Desktop And try not to use rm -rf without being absolutely sure what will be deleted next time. Especially with sudo.


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From your overall question, and comments like: i ran a diskless virtual machine with an iso as a "cd drive", and booted from the "cd". It sounds to me like you may have only been running "live" with no persistence. Especially given the iso in the VM's "cd drive", I'm suspecting there might not be any saved files to recover, unless the VM saved them ...


2

No, the ls command does not work differently on server editions of Ubuntu. What does work differently is that, by default, user creation on the server additions does not include populating the new user's home directory with folders such as Desktop (because there isn't one), Pictures and so on. So ls is simply telling you that there are currently no ...


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Perhaps there's nothing in that directory? Try "ls /" which should list contents of root directory.


2

From https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/154656/etc-init-d-nis-missing-on-ubuntu/154661 Not your fault, it's a bug in the documentation: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/nis/+bug/1303717 The package uses upstart, which uses files in /etc/init/ rather than /etc/init.d/. But I also don't know how to restart nis now... Also, it ...


0

Writing to /dev/null will not work if the program tries to create a file and write to it. That is not something that you can do in /dev/null. Perhaps the next best thing would be to create a temporary file system in memory. Then the files will be written, but will be discarded when the system is shutdown, or when the temporary file system is unmounted. ...


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Yes, you can write to /dev/null, but you might need root permissions (not sure about that, just try). You can also delete files by moving them there, e.g. mv justanytrash.txt /dev/null


1

A couple things: Using LVM to manage your partitions makes it MUCH easier to do this kind of thing. It is a lot easier to increase a partition's size than to decrease it. Especially the root mount. Since all the partitions you're discussing are on the same physical disk, there is no performance benefit from splitting them up into different partitions. ...


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No, this is not an easy task, nor is it very complicated either (Just a little bit complicated) Make a system back-up before you begin! (You've just been promoted to User type 4!) Insert both hard-disks into the same computer. (if you have a laptop, with space for only one hard disk, buy an external USB enclosure.) Clone the old HDD onto the new HDD. ...


1

Make a full system backup. (Read What's a good back-up strategy for 1 desktop PC? first) Make a full file back-up (Déjà-dup, BackInTime, rsync, ...) Boot the LiveCD of the Ubuntu version you're currently running Go to gparted, choose the SSD, create a partition 25% larger then the total size of /usr and /opt, format as ext4 Get the blkid of the new ...


2

Mine are saved in ~/Pictures/Webcam. Also, I can right-click the images in cheese then a menu will pop up with the options: Open, Save As..., Move to Trash and Delete.


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Assuming it's Thunderbird that should detect changes were made and ask to copy elsewhere: Mozilla's Bugzilla Assuming LibreOffice should detect that a temporary directory is being used: LibreOffice's Bugzilla


15

It appears that you are in the directory /root and not /. Please type: cd / ls -al


3

It's a huge topic and it sounds like you're starting at the bottom. You need to understand what a filesystem is before you can hope to design one. To the Kernel, a file or directory is just an inode tied to a superblock. The inode stores data location information as well as attributes about ownership, permissions, etc. That scopes out the data. Parallel to ...


1

By default ext2, ext3 and ext4 reserve 5% of all space for the root user and to prevent fragmentation (see this mailing list). However as this particular disk is used for archiving data that doesn't change much, I have taken the liberty to change this percentage to 1%, using the command: sudo tune2fs -m 1 /dev/sdb the last item /dev/sdb reflecting the ...


0

It shows the size of index table of your filesystem. In every HDD, you can not use the whole space for yourself.When any kind of partition is made on disk; to keep track of index of any file stored on it, parttion table is created to look up when we try to access any particular file.Not only that much information but all other information regarding each ...


1

/var should not be placed on read-only media. Even the name says that much. Many volatile directories reside there - most importantly /var/log, as well as /var/spool, /var/run. /opt, possibly, not much happens there outside of software installation. See the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard for more information, which says this about /var: /var contains ...


1

Installations under /opt/ are always 3rd party. Updates of software installed in /opt/ depends on the way that 3rd party believes updates need to be done. Several pieces of software I use have an "check for updates" button in their GUI. Others expect you to download a complete new version of their software and install it side by side with the old verion so ...


2

I'm not sure when, or even if, Debian or Ubuntu will switch to Btrfs as the default root filesystem. Seeing as how it's just recently "become stable" I wouldn't be surprised if it were years before it reached Debian Stable (but Ubuntu's based on Debian Unstable...). If it were me, I'd wait and see how it goes for openSUSE for a while. It seems that ...


0

Thank you for your answer, it helps me going forward. Now getting deeper into the encryption thing, I wonder if it would be possible / if I would run into issues if : Ubuntu is installed on a crypted partition(1) VirtualBox is installed on a hidden crypted partition(2) On that partition(2) there's a VeraCrypt volume file (double-password protected) which ...


0

Short answer: stick to the default of ext4, unless you know why you want something different. The Ubuntu installer offers the option to encrypt your partition for you using LUKS, however if you wish to use TrueCrypt then you should encrypt the partition before you install! Note that TrueCrypt is no longer being developed and it is uncertain if it is still ...


0

What you really need is BTRFS http://www.linux.com/learn/tutorials/767683-how-to-create-and-manage-btrfs-snapshots-and-rollbacks-on-linux-part-2 https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Incremental_Backup http://www.dedoimedo.com/computers/btrfs-snapshots.html


1

bin directory contains executable files that you have in your system..its like program files if we compare to MS windows .every user individually will have a bin directory which has his own executables...and there is also sbin directory which will have system level programs


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/bin — Essential command binaries that need to be available in single user mode; for all users, e.g., cat, ls, cp. This Wikipedia article may be useful for you: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filesystem_Hierarchy_Standard


0

Seems that u forgot to add sudo before your commands.You need to be root user if you want to remount( idk if you just ignored the sudos HERE for typing faster)


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Boot from a live CD or USB and supposing that your HDD will be /dev/sda, issue this command sudo fsck.ext4 -p -f /dev/sda1 assuming that your root partition is the first one, and you have ext4 on it.


2

(building on previous advise in regards to lcblk). For the lazy typist (and if you don't need the sizes) you can use: sudo lsblk -f which is same as using -o NAME,FSTYPE,LABEL,MOUNTPOINT for example NAME FSTYPE SIZE MOUNTPOINT LABEL sda 2.7T └─sda1 ntfs ...


0

I managed to solve the problem. It happened that I have put the file on the Desktop folder, but the root folder named Desktop is completely different from the non-root folder Dektop (which is what is displayed on the desktop of Ubuntu). I copied the file by cd into the folder of the file, and using cp filename.tar.gz ...


0

sudo chmod -R ug+rw foldername If you want to change all files and folders use: sudo chmod -R ug+rw * You can change all these to be owned by the myuser user with: sudo chown -R myuser:myuser *


1

aufs ( eventually UnionFS) is old and overlayfs in new solution for this in Ubuntu. This script for overlayfs worked fluently for me with 14.04.1 So you need to copy the script to /etc/initramfs-tools/scripts/init-bottom/root-ro, then #make the script executable cmdod 755 /etc/initramfs-tools/scripts/init-bottom/root-ro #add the module overlayfs to ...


0

File manager searching through that folder tree? Counting all files & adding up their sizes? Any indexing service? If you disabled access times when mounting that backup (with noatime), then the access time shouldn't be changed (unless you modify the file I think)


0

There's usually some important stuff in /var, if you have a backup now would be a good time to restore. Or even reinstall Ubuntu and then restore your data from a backup. It might be possible that your system will still boot & run after deleting /var, but since you're having problems now...


1

Changing permission for just the file won't do. You need to allow access for the non-root user to all folders in the parent tree of the file in question. This of course is a security hazard. So, it is recommended that you try to solve the "need" of accessing this file in a secure way.


2

Try changing the owner or the group of the file. sudo chgrp "group name" "filename" sudo chown "username" "filename" But this should only be done, if the file is not exactly required to be "owned" by the root.


1

The problem IS this package: uvcdynctrl-udev. It's a useles and buggie program. It should be simply removed from debian and ubuntu repos. It shoudn't be installed. This package not only creates this HUGE log files, but it also causes Cheese and other web-cam apps to crash or work very badly (Can't capture video at full resolution with Cheese or Guvcview? ...


0

Did you check this one to know the device file. Taken from the man page of dsp. OSS 4.0 (and later) will create audio devices under /dev/oss/ directory. For example /dev/oss/sblive0/pcm0 is the first audio device that belongs to the first Sound Blaster Live! or Audigy card in the system. These direct devices are used ...



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