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The handling of configuration files is described in the XDG Base Directory Specification. It defines a set of related path environment variables like XDG_CONFIG_HOME and XDG_CONFIG_DIRS, which define, for example, where the .config directory is by default, and how to handle it in various other controlled ways . Very common is obviously the form ...


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Your GPT partition table is broken according to the output of gdisk. Please backup your partition table to a file on a working drive with: sudo sgdisk --backup=/path/to/backup.sgdisk /dev/sda You need to store it somewhere where you have write permissions like a USB drive or your home folder. If you're on a live system, you should also store the backup ...


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Try this procedure. Create shared folder and give right permission: mkdir /pathYouWant/share chown 770 /pathYouWant/share This gives no access to other. chown +t /pathYouWant/share This mode, according to chmod manual page: The restricted deletion flag or sticky bit is a single bit, whose interpretation depends on the file type. ...


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Advisory note: It would be a very good idea to backup the entire file system before performing any changes or fixes to it. If you don't have enough space for that use e2image(8) as an emergency precaution. Fixing corrupt superblocks [Edit] According to your comment you have a corrupt file system superblock. There's an answer on serverfault that deals with ...


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Unfortunately, your problem is not solvable so easily. If a user has write permission in a directory, he can also delete files. Even if he wasn't able to delete them, he could still fill a file with zeros, which would be a deletion of data, but not of the filesystem node. An idea which I once used: You create a cronjob, which recusively removes the write ...


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As a quick fix delete /var/log/syslog and restart the syslog daemon (sudo initctl restart rsyslog) or your entire system. Beyond that something went wrong with your logrotate(8) task that's supposed to prevent overly large log files, but that is a bit more difficult to fix.


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On Oracle Linux it happens when you have (a lot of/large) files which are deleted but still open by a running process. Then stop of the processes or reboot of the machine helps.


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It may help to switch to the CFQ scheduler, because it is more optimised towards rotational media: echo -n cfq | sudo tee /sys/block/[hs]d?/queue/scheduler > /dev/null You can benchmark file system performance with IOzone (package name iozone3). More on the CFQ scheduler http://www.makelinux.net/books/lkd2/ch13lev1sec5 Graphical representation ...


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Unless you quite literally have a directory named .. in /etc, no, that directory is not in /etc. .. refers to the parent directory of the current directory, (like . refers to itself) and exist for every directory: $ ls -al / total 16 drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Jun 1 2013 . drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 122 Jul 14 05:33 .. So /etc/../ actually refers to /, and ...


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The brute force 'old school' way for ext3 is the "Tripwire" method (I named it from the insidious Tripwire product): build a list of files, then do it again, run diff. The more often you build your list and diff it, more close in time you will know when directories were both created AND deleted. The two ways to build such a list is use: ls or to use lsof. ...


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I added a little more detail for the ' Run a script with user interaction on log out / shutdown?' ideas on how to make it work through lightdm and posted those ideas here: Run a script with user interaction on log out / shutdown? Basically, you can prompt the user (or just go ahead and do AutoFsck without prompting) on lightdm shutdown. The bottom line is ...


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Does MTP Help? There doesn't seem to be a very good (functioning) way of mounting a Nexus 4 in Ubuntu, […] I was wondering if you knew about the MTP protocol? It seems to be the main way for accessing media data of Android devices without SD cards via USB. Modern Ubuntu versions (>= 13.04) should ship MTP support for Nautilus already. For older Ubuntu ...


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There's a good chance you only deleted the partition but the file system and data are still there. The Ubuntu community help has a section on restoring it. Please consult it and add additional diagnosis info to your question, if you're stuck. In future it's a good idea to backup partition tables before editing them: sudo sfdisk -d /dev/sda > ...


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In sdfs, there are two ways of deduplication used: Fixed block deduplication Requires aligned blocks of 4096 bytes to be the same That will just not happen often with your data. Variable block deduplication Also requires blocks of 4096 bytes to be the same, but they do not need to be aligned. I assume that your test files ("Similar PDF files") have ...


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There is a tool that scans the harddisk for typical headers of the file type you are looking for: TestDisk, which is closely related to photorec. You could also look for known words in the document on the harddisk; But you can not be sure that words occur as normal text in the file, you would need to search for them as individual words, in the right ...


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These files and folders contain user specific setting. Desktop behavior and Application setting of each user is not same. These settings are stored in their home directory in hidden files and directory. If you backup your whole home directory including the configuration files and folders, after restore,your settings also will be restored to its previous ...


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Directory hardlinks break the filesystem in multiple ways They allow to create loops A hard link to a directory can link to a parent of itself, which creates a file system loop. For example, these commands could create a loop with the back link l: mkdir -p /tmp/a/b cd /tmp/a/b ln -d /tmp/a l A filesystem with a directory loop has infinite depth: cd ...


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The FHS 3.0 specs (currently in beta, part of LSB 5.0) don't list /cdrom now: The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /. Directory Description bin Essential command binaries boot Static files of the boot loader dev Device files etc Host-specific system configuration lib ...


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You should be able to set up the shares in Virtual Box under "Shared Folders". If it is running, there is an icon on the status bar (if you're not running full screen), or if not, in the settings dialog. Choose "Add Share", fill in the path and name, select "permanent" and "auto mount" if you always want it mounted. In Windows, use Explorer to share it ...


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According to wiki.kernel.org FAQ /proc/fs/jbd2/partition/info file shows the average statistics from the /proc/fs/jbd2/partition/history file since the file system was first mounted. Executing cat /proc/fs/jbd2/partition/info gives: 56 transaction, each upto 2048 blocks average: 0ms waiting for transaction 57671ms running transaction 0ms transaction ...


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Quoting your question: The /var directory may be put in its own filesystem... (Emphasis mine.) They key phrase here is may be. It's not uncommon to do so. But the default Ubuntu installation settings don't do so, so you don't have /var on a separate partition. There are many scenarios where /var belongs on a different filesystem (or even a different ...


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Your /var is just a directory under root (/), so it's ext4 in your case.


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Rexoanimation solved the problem and explained the solution in an edit: Disk utility is called: Disks - had to search for it.


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Beware that some software do no go to /usr/bin, but will use /opt/myprojet or /home/myproject, and you have to put /opt/myproject/bin on you $PATH. By default most software install are owned by root or bin, and anyone, A and B n your example will/could use it. Some software, I think about Oracle are owned by a different user, in which case you (A or B) ...


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Will I be able to run it? what all factors determine that. Yes. But there a no factors? If it is there is can be executed. If an admin wants to prevent execution (s)he needs to use a tool to block access (acl is one of those tools). How does the system differentiate that what softwares installed in /usr are installed by which user. It does not ...


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First a little background. You seem to have two physical hard drives in your computer, sda and sdb. These are each split into separate partitions. Based on your df output, sda is the 24GB HD and sdb the 750. The sdb2 partition is mounted at /media/blah/534E-B317. Since this is not a standard mount point, I am assuming you have set it up yourself and that it ...


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It looks like all you want to do is read files from the system, so in this case, it doesn't matter (for you) that you can't mount this HFS+ partition as writable. All you need to do is read from it. So, mount it as you have been doing, and copy files from it using sudo, eg sudo cp -av /media/mac/some-dir /home/you/some-other-dir Edit: I realise you ...


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Usually you mount filesystems which are located on a block device = hard disk, USB stick, ... Additionally there are some "virtual" file systems such as /proc or /sys which are for interaction with Linux kernel. These do not have any block device associated with them => none is displayed instead. None is also displayed for tmpfs filesystem. Tmpfs uses RAM ...


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Since we should not give link only answers, from this site: auto - Mount automatically at boot, or when the command mount -a is issued. noauto - Mount only when you tell it to. exec - Allow execution of binaries on the filesystem. noexec - Disallow execution of binaries on the filesystem. ro - Mount the filesystem read-only. rw - Mount the filesystem ...


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sudo cp -r --backup=t recup_dir.*/* recup_dir this command will copy the contents of all the 535 folder to recup_dir and rename existing files to file.~1~ file.~2~ .. the 535 folder and their contents will still exist , if you want to delete them after copying just add && sudo rm -rf recup_dir.* after the first command , so it will look like : ...


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The script below moves all files from one directory, containing your 535 folders, (recursively) into another (single) directory, keeping their original filename. In case of duplicates (Only) in case of duplicate names, files will be renamed to duplicate_1_[filename], duplicate_2_[filename] etc. How to use Copy the script below into an empty file, save it ...


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1 thing for the future generations. Partial won't load LVs which were partial. Also it will replace your config and you will still get critical errors for your fs. To load the broken LVs you must first replace the broken/failed/disabled drive or part, with for example nfs mounted loop image. Dump the config of VG, compare it with backed up configurations ...


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Installing linux-generic fixed it.


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Also try this it is very easy, clear, a GUI approach and it shows you exactly what you have laid out on your HDD. 1. Go to: "System tools" in your main launch list 2. Launch "GParted" 3. Enter your password (should be your log on password if you are the admin.) You will be shown your HDD layouts, partitions sizes and amounts used. 4. Quit the GParted ...


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When you do ls * the * is being expanded before it is passed to ls. That is to say if we have three files (a, b and c) in a directory ls * is actually running ls a b c. When Bash can't expand, it passes through the raw string¹. That's why you see the wildcards in the error, along with a not found message. ls tried to show the listing for a file literally ...


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I don't see what bash has to do with ext4, but the package providing mkfs.ext4 is e2fsprogs: $ dpkg -S `which mkfs.ext4` e2fsprogs: /sbin/mkfs.ext4 To get it, do: apt-get source e2fsprogs Or download the source from Ubuntu Packages. (The source command doesn't need sudo.)



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