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Note: this answer is primerally aimed at Why Ubuntu 16.04 LTS is Xenial Xerus? which was marked as a duplicate of this question before I could finish my answer. Ubuntu codenames follow the form <adjective> <animal>, this started as a joke but it stuck. After Breezy they also decided to move upwards through the alphabet to make things less confusing. ...
Linux Hardware Guide looks like a good resource.
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