Root is the superuser of Ubuntu. Questions about the / or /root folder are better suited for the "filesystem" tag.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

135
votes
18answers
47k views

Why is it bad to login as root?

I've often come across posts on forums or other websites where you see people joking in such a manner about running/logging in as root as if it's something awful and everyone ought to know about it. ...
108
votes
5answers
197k views

Execute sudo without Password?

Inspired by this question.... I am the sole person using my system with 12.04. Every time I issue a sudo command; the system asks for the user password (which is good in its own way). However I was ...
77
votes
8answers
37k views

What is the difference between “gksudo nautilus” and “sudo nautilus”?

I've been using gksudo nautilus and sudo nautilus through Alt+F2. What's the difference? They look very similar!
69
votes
5answers
417k views

How to enable root login?

I would like to enable the root account on my Ubuntu installation. I realize the security implications of this.
64
votes
6answers
109k views

How do I copy files that need root access with scp?

I have an Ubuntu server to which I am connecting using SSH. I need to upload files from my machine into /var/www/ on the server, the files in /var/www/ are owned by root. Using PuTTY, after I log in,...
61
votes
4answers
414k views

How to enable ssh root access on Ubuntu 14.04

I´d like to enable the ssh root access on Ubuntu 14.04. Editing the /etc/ssh_config (PermitRootLogin yes) didn't affect anything.
61
votes
3answers
15k views

When to use pkexec vs. gksu/gksudo?

There are two general ways to run applications graphically as root (or, more generally, as another user). Programs like gksu, gksudo, and kdesudo are graphical frontends for sudo. In contrast, pkexec ...
50
votes
5answers
55k views

How are administrators supposed to read root's mail?

What is the Ubuntu way for system administrators to receive system notifications, which typically take the form of e-mail sent to the root account? Examples of such notifications are the output of ...
44
votes
1answer
84k views

How do I boot into a root shell?

When booting to the graphical desktop fails we sometimes are recommended to boot into a "root shell" or to boot in "recovery mode". How do I do that?
36
votes
8answers
379k views

“No root file system defined” error while installing ubuntu

I am new to linux/ ubuntu and just downloaded the v11 of ubuntu to learn linux. I faced this "No root file system is defined" error while trying to install it. This is how I was proceeding - ...
34
votes
4answers
498k views

How do I login as root?

I want to login as root, but when I enter sudo -s and enter password, this message is shown: "you are not in sudoers file", and when I enter su and enter password, this is shown: "...
33
votes
5answers
12k views

How to NOT become a root user? Are administrators root?

I installed Ubuntu on my PC. To log in, I use the username and password I created during installation. Does this mean I am a root user? If yes, then how do I become non-root? It looks like non-root ...
33
votes
4answers
114k views

How to configure ADB access for Android devices?

I'm using Ubuntu 12.10 and I have installed Android SDK, set it's path in my user .bashrc and it works. The problem is that my phone requires adb to be ran by root for permissions, but running adb ...
32
votes
14answers
15k views

Why is there no option to login as root?

Why does Ubuntu not allow the GUI users to login as root at the time of system start up like administrator in Windows? Why they are restricting us to login only through the terminal?
32
votes
3answers
41k views

Disable root account in Ubuntu?

I was asked for root credentials to setup my printer in Ubuntu. This seemed to be caused by a bug. And the suggested workaround is to create a root password. Since it is default that no root password ...
32
votes
9answers
141k views

How do I get permissions to edit system configuration files?

I can't seem to edit and save config files in the root system (eg: /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.config); it just says "permission denied" or the save option is blocked in the text editor. I'm pretty sure I'm a ...
31
votes
8answers
28k views

How can a script check if it's being run as root?

I'm writing a simple bash script, but I need it to check whether it's being run as root or not. I know there's probably a very simple way to do that, but I have no idea how. Just to be clear: What's ...
31
votes
3answers
39k views

How do I disable remote SSH login as root from a server?

For security purposes my company wants me to not allow anyone to be able to log into our Ubuntu server as root remotely over SSH. We still want the root account to exist, we just do not want it to be ...
28
votes
3answers
416k views

What is the default root password?

I installed Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin), 64 bit. Nowhere was I asked to set password for root. I just installed AccuRev SCM software. It was installed under the /root folder by default. Now I ...
25
votes
8answers
85k views

How to find out root password for installing software

I'm trying to install the NetBeans IDE in my Ubuntu and in the process it's asking for my root password which I don't remember. I know my sudo user password. How can I recover my root password?
23
votes
4answers
61k views

Change owner of internal hard drive partition from root to user

I have a number of drives internal and external. Some are partitioned. Most mount automatically at boot (all did at one point). One partition is owned by root and therefore does not mount ...
21
votes
6answers
180k views

How can I permanently grant root access to a user? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How do I grant sudo privileges to an existing user? I've been searching for the answer to this but all I find is "It's not a good idea" or "We don't recommend it" and some ...
21
votes
5answers
200k views

How to change root password in ubuntu?

I am trying to change root password in my Ubuntu system. This is what I did: ashot@ashot-desktop:~$ sudo passwd root passwd: Authentication token manipulation error passwd: password unchanged ...
19
votes
8answers
59k views

/usr/bin/sudo must be owned by uid 0 and have the setuid bit set

I have run following command accidentally sudo chown [username] -hR / Now sudo su getting error: sudo: /usr/bin/sudo must be owned by uid 0 and have the setuid bit set How to Solve This?
19
votes
2answers
54k views

What is the difference between 'su -' , 'sudo bash' and 'sudo sh'?

I would like to know what is the difference between su - sudo bash sudo sh I cannot login as root while doing su - because I do not have the root password - I mean I have my user password with ...
18
votes
3answers
270k views

How do I set the root password so I can use su instead of sudo? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How to know my root password? Instead of letting you set a password for root during install Ubuntu set it to * for no password and disables the actual account login, ...
17
votes
5answers
137k views

How do I open a folder as root?

More specifically the /etc/apt/ folder. I need to delete some files and replace /etc/apt/sources.list with a newer version.
17
votes
3answers
24k views

How do I set persistent environment variables for root?

To create persistent environment variables, I add the script file to /etc/profile.d directory, for example: # my script export MY_VAR=var_value This works properly for current user: alex@alex-64:...
16
votes
3answers
35k views

Adding NOPASSWD in /etc/sudoers doesn't work

On 14.04 here. I SSHed into my machine, added the following line to /etc/sudoers: myuser ALL=NOPASSWD: ALL And then tried running: sudo mkdir /etc/blah ...and I'm being asked for my password. ...
15
votes
7answers
13k views

What are the benefits of sudo over su?

What is the actual benefit that Ubuntu (or Debian derivatives) achieve by disabling root user? Everywhere I read, it says to prevent unintentional damages for inexperienced users. I want to know what ...
15
votes
2answers
14k views

openssh server: rejected send message

When I tried to restart the ssh server on my ubuntu box, I got me@me-one:~$ service ssh restart restart: Rejected send message, 1 matched rules; type="method_call", sender=":1.63" (uid=1000 pid=3354 ...
14
votes
4answers
15k views

How do I open Deja Dup as root?

I wanted to backup /var/cache/apt/archives using 'Deja Dup' but it keeps saying >> Could not backup the following files. Please make sure you are able to open them. /var/cache/apt/archives/...
13
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the name of the security concept that explains why Linux asks for root password?

Whenever I'm installing new software or making changes to the system, Linux asks for the root password. What is the name of this security concept and where can I research more information about it?
13
votes
2answers
4k views

Why am I suddenly not a sudoer anymore? [duplicate]

I booted up Ubuntu 12.10 today, and when trying to sudo, I entered my password as usual but it had said I'm not a sudoer. So I go and check my account under User Accounts, and for some reason Im now a ...
13
votes
2answers
21k views

How do I start jobs as a non privileged user in Upstart?

I'm using last upstart version for ubuntu 10.4 LTS. upstart is launched with --debug kernel flag. I'm making a custom job configuration for nzbget daemon. Basically, this job has a pre-start script ...
12
votes
7answers
77k views

How do I allow non-root access to /ttyUSB0 on 12.04?

Since I updated from 10.04 to 12.04, I am unable to access the device connected in /ttyUSB0 if I don't have root access. To be more specific, I use a usb-to-serial com port converter to access and ...
12
votes
4answers
209k views

How to run Terminal as root?

When we want to run a programs as root we use sudo, gksu, gksudo and etc. Now my question is how do we can run a Terminal as the root user in Terminal? I tried with using gksudo terminal and gksu ...
12
votes
1answer
89k views

How to install flash payer in Ubuntu 14.04 LTS? [duplicate]

How to install flash payer in Ubuntu 14.04 LTS ? Also how to get the root permission ?...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Why do I have low FPS unless root?

Problem: Normal users aren't using the best graphics driver. I first noticed this playing Osmos from the HumbleBundle2, but I can observe it while running glxgears too. Maximised on a 1280x1024, ...
10
votes
5answers
86k views

Get root access for copying files to /usr/share/…?

To be short, I want to copy a folder to a location /usr/share/screenlets/.... in Ubuntu 10.04 system. I tried by logging in as root from terminal giving su. I even changed my user account type to ...
10
votes
3answers
821 views

How can I make everything just assume I'm running as the superuser?

Is there a way I can make things just assume that when I run them I am running them as a privileged administrator (AKA root)? I know it could be dangerous and all, but its a risk I'm willing to take ...
10
votes
3answers
62k views

“You are not the owner…” message when trying to access folder

In the properties menu of this folder the permission is set to "root" user and group, it shows the message "you are not the owner, so you cannot change these permissions." I am indeed the owner and ...
10
votes
1answer
57k views

How to run Bash script as root with no password? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How do I use sudo in my script without needing a password? I want to run a bash script as root with no password prompt. I tried visudo with no luck(your_username ALL=(ALL) ...
10
votes
3answers
228k views

What is the default root password when was never set at installation time? [duplicate]

On a standard desktop installation, I created my administrative and user login. Further with some applications, the system ask for the root password. So my question is: What will be the default ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

When Ubuntu asks for an admin user's password, how does it decide which administrative user to ask for?

I am setting up an Ubuntu (10.10) machine that will be used by several people. It is a shared machine in a small office. Its primary roles are hosting virtual machines with VirtualBox and serving ...
10
votes
1answer
718 views

How can you know if executing a program requires root?

I understand that this is a bit fundamental and perhaps a silly question, but I haven't been able to find an answer. I understand that every file has the "Executable" bit. I assumed that programs ...
10
votes
2answers
154 views

How to make /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/reboot etc. require sudo again in 16.04?

For whatever reason, we do no longer need to be root (or using sudo) to run /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/reboot etc. This seems to be because those executables are now symlinks to /bin/systemctl which ...
9
votes
5answers
5k views

Why does Ubuntu force users to create a password upon installation?

There's been one problem I've had since I installed Ubuntu to run alongside Windows, I assume this would also be the same if it was installed to replace the other operating system as well, the ...
9
votes
3answers
44k views

How to create a user with root privileges in bash?

I have run the following commands: sudo groupadd -r testgroup sudo useradd -g testgroup -M -r testuser Notice the -r option, which according to the man page: -r     ...
9
votes
2answers
84k views

I Can't access the root folder

I do not have access to my root folder: Ubuntu says I do not have the necessary permissions to access it. I also cannot access lost + found, which gives me the same error message Is there anyone here ...