Questions about the management of packages, in particular the `dpkg` system.

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384
votes
15answers
517k views

How to list all installed packages?

I'd like to output a list of all installed packages into a text file, so that I can review it and bulk-install on another system. How to do this?
226
votes
13answers
241k views

How do I resolve unmet dependencies after adding a PPA?

Occasionally, when I'm installing stuff, I get an error like the following: Some packages could not be installed. This may mean that you have requested an impossible situation or if you are using the ...
209
votes
11answers
153k views

“The following packages have been kept back:” Why and how do I solve it?

I just added a PPA repository for the development version of the GIMP, but I get this error The following packages have been kept back: gimp gimp-data libgegl-0.0-0 libgimp2.0 Why and how can I ...
136
votes
18answers
116k views

How can I install software or packages without Internet (offline)?

I have a friend who has got a computer that is not connected to the Internet. Is there any way to install software offline easily?
126
votes
7answers
341k views

How to install updates via command line?

Good day, When I log into my web server via SSH I see the information: 88 packages can be updated. 80 updates are security updates I tried apt-get update then apt-get upgrade but each time I log ...
117
votes
14answers
63k views

How to backup settings and list of installed packages

If I want to make a backup of everything I have done since the fresh install of Ubuntu, what are the possible options? What all should I backup? I want to get all the settings that I changed, all the ...
108
votes
6answers
38k views

Is aptitude still considered superior to apt-get?

When I first started with Ubuntu using aptitude was the 'in-thing', with some stated improvements over apt-get. Am I correct in saying that apt-get has now 'caught up' with aptitude, and it makes ...
106
votes
5answers
13k views

How can I tell, from the command line, whether the machine requires a reboot?

When you install certain updates (e.g. a new kernel) in Ubuntu Desktop, you get an indication that a reboot is required (in Lucid, the logout icon turns red). How can I check, from the command line, ...
104
votes
6answers
71k views

How can I install just security updates from the command line?

sudo apt-get upgrade installs all updates, not just security updates. I know that I can use Update Manager to select only important security updates, but is there a way to do this from the command ...
100
votes
9answers
5k views

What's the difference between package managers?

I know Ubuntu/Kubuntu has several programs that can be used to install packages, such as apt-get, aptitude, and synaptic (and perhaps others). What are the differences between them, and which one is ...
92
votes
9answers
59k views

How to prevent updating of a specific package?

Because of bug #693758 I'd like to prevent apt-get upgrade and Update Manager from updating the "libgtk2.0-0" package. How can this be achieved?
85
votes
5answers
79k views

How do I get a list of installed files from a package?

I want to know where I can find my installed application when I installed it on Ubuntu using package manager. I installed RabbitMQ and ran locate rabbitmq which gave me following result: ...
74
votes
3answers
69k views

How do I deal with “unauthenticated sources” errors in the Software Center?

Any install that I'm trying through the Software Center is telling me: Requires installation of untrusted packages: The action would require the installation of packages from not authenticated ...
73
votes
5answers
128k views

What is the correct way to completely remove an application?

I've searched the net for such information and found different command lines, like these ones: sudo apt-get remove application sudo apt-get remove application* sudo apt-get remove --purge ...
69
votes
5answers
86k views

How to Downgrade a Package via apt-get?

How to downgrade a package to an older version via apt-get?! Another tools are also accepted but apt-get is preferred.
66
votes
5answers
22k views

How do I find the package that provides a file?

Simple enough question: is there some shell command (or GUI method) I can use that, given the path to a file on my system, tells me what package put it there? Assuming the file did in fact come from a ...
62
votes
7answers
13k views

Why don't the Ubuntu repositories have the latest versions of software?

Why are packages in the official Ubuntu repositories older than the latest (upstream) versions from Debian Sid, PPAs, the authors, etc.?
57
votes
11answers
7k views

Why can't I update applications without upgrading the whole OS?

In Ubuntu, once a release is out the software one has installed receives security updates only. In Windows, I can get new versions of programs with new features. How can Windows do this and why can't ...
55
votes
2answers
40k views

How can I see all versions of a package that are available in the archive?

Is there a way I can see all the versions that are in the archives that I have configured in sources.list. I can see the last version of each archive with "apt-get policy", but how can I see all? Is ...
51
votes
4answers
66k views

Requires installation of untrusted packages?

I tried installing VLC Player yesterday, and I got the Requires installation of untrusted packages error. I searched for hours for a solution to this problem, and finally came upon a suggestion that ...
50
votes
2answers
121k views

How can you completely remove a package?

I am trying to do a clean install of the octave3.2 package. To do this, I removed it, then tried to reinstall it. When I reinstalled, an error occurred. It could be a bug in the package, but I ...
50
votes
1answer
9k views

What is the difference between upstream and downstream when referring to who to go to as a developer?

What is the difference between upstream and downstream when referring to who (or where) to go to as a developer or packager?
46
votes
4answers
28k views

If I build a package from source how can I uninstall or remove completely?

I used source code to build one package such as below: ./configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var --libexecdir=/usr/lib --with-package-name="Myplugin" ...
43
votes
10answers
24k views

How can I strip down Ubuntu?

I'm trying to fix what I consider a bloated install of Ubuntu. When I install Ubuntu on a machine, I get things that I don't want - web browsers, office applications, media players, accessibility ...
43
votes
1answer
1k views

What is Ubuntu's policy on keeping old kernels

I've just run out of disk space on /. Looking into the situation I realised that since first installing 12.04, Ubuntu has upgraded the kernel ~23 times and has kept every old kernel, binaries and ...
41
votes
7answers
21k views

Is it possible to get a list of most recently installed packages?

Is it possible to get a list of packages that were most recently installed through apt-get?
41
votes
3answers
14k views

How can I tell what package requires a reboot of my system?

I have unattended-upgrade set up on my Ubuntu systems. Occasionally I will log in remotely to one of them and I'll see a message informing me that I need to reboot the system (in order to complete ...
41
votes
2answers
31k views

What does the “Basic Ubuntu Server” package contain in software selection during installation?

I'm installing Ubuntu 12.04 from an Ubuntu Minimal image, and I've gotten to the software selection part. What I'm wondering is, which packages are included in the "Basic Ubuntu Server" option? I'm ...
37
votes
5answers
27k views

How can I check the available version of a package in the repositories?

How can I check the version of the available package in the Ubuntu repositories without installing it?
36
votes
3answers
22k views

How can I restore configuration files?

I would like to restore LightDM to its default state, because for some reason /etc/lightdm/unity-greeter.conf is now an empty file. Deleting /etc/lightdm/unity-greeter.conf and then running sudo ...
34
votes
3answers
26k views

Why am I getting authentication errors for packages from an Ubuntu repository?

I'm experimenting with VPNs, so I wanted to install pptpd. john@desktop:~$ sudo apt-get install pptpd [sudo] password for john: <snip> The following extra packages will be installed: bcrelay ...
31
votes
1answer
4k views

How to create a meta-package that automatically installs other packages?

I'd like to be able to create a package that doesnt contain any code or programs itself, but instead installs other packages that exist in the repositories onto a computer, sort of how the ...
29
votes
4answers
21k views

How to list package dependencies (reverse dependencies)? [duplicate]

In order to research what caused the installation of a given package, I'd like to get a list of packages which depend on that package. I couldn't find anything obvious in man dpkg.
28
votes
2answers
776 views

What precautions should I take with .debs I find on the internet?

So I was browsing the web the other day, and I came across a few places that wanted me to download .deb files - and since those are installed by root (and as such have the "powers" and capabilities of ...
28
votes
10answers
21k views

How do I install and manage RPMs?

I have a burning desire to install RPMs onto my Ubuntu installation - is this possible? Can I use Yum - or another RPM Package Management tool?
28
votes
2answers
2k views

What security differences are between click and .deb package?

Installing a random (nasty?) .deb can be dangerous because it will grant all privilege to the apps and daemon installed because the .deb has some configs asking to applied if the user valid his ...
28
votes
2answers
24k views

How do you run a 32-bit program on a 64-bit version of Ubuntu?

I have a 64-bit version of Ubuntu 13.10. I want to run a 32-bit version of a program. However I see ia32-libs is not included in 13.10. Is there a replacement package for this or what?
27
votes
6answers
46k views

How to uninstall a .deb package?

Suppose I download a .deb package from a website and install it. (I assume that when I double click the .deb file, the package is installed through a GUI that interfaces with dpkg right?) How can I ...
26
votes
5answers
1k views

How can I check if a package is installed (no superuser privileges)?

At our university we can get almost any ubuntu package installed we want, but we are not superusers ourselves (we need to request packages being installed). With some libraries it is not always easy ...
26
votes
6answers
4k views

Why the software center doesn't allow multiple downloads?

I was wondering why the software center doesn't download all the requested apps and install one by one as they finish to download. Or instead why the software center doesn't download an app while the ...
26
votes
8answers
13k views

Where do I get a package for GNU Parallel?

I want to install GNU Parallel in Ubuntu but I can't find a package for it in the default Ubuntu repos. Where can I get it?
26
votes
6answers
23k views

How do I enable the “partner” repository?

I keep seeing places refer to the "partner" repository as a place I can get software, how can I enable this repository? Please specify how to do this graphically and via command line.
25
votes
4answers
129k views

How do I enable the “Universe” repository?

How do I get to Universe Repository of Ubuntu software as mentioned in Ubuntu 12.04 LTS? I am installing 12.04 Ubuntu. Please help.
25
votes
4answers
18k views

How to set up an APT repository?

I would like to set up an APT repository on a server that will provide a couple of packages. Is there a way to set one up without installing any software on the server? How do the files have to be ...
24
votes
2answers
3k views

How do I create a PPA for a working program?

Let's assume I have a working application written in C, C++ or Python. I want to create a Launchpad PPA so others can easily install it from a package. Please give step by step instructions for doing ...
23
votes
5answers
37k views

How can I find out if a specific program is installed? [duplicate]

I want to find out if a program - Chromium for example - is installed on Ubuntu or not. Manually or as a package. How do I know if a program is installed via command line?
23
votes
3answers
3k views

Command-line equivalences of some tasks in Synaptic

I already use apt-get for most of my package management. Yet, there are times when I occasionally need to use Synaptic to do certain things. I would like to learn the equivalent commands for doing the ...
23
votes
3answers
2k views

What does the “-ng” suffix mean in package names?

Several package names contain the suffix -ng: $ apt-cache search "\-ng$" linux-wlan-ng - utilities for wireless prism2 cards aircrack-ng - wireless WEP/WPA cracking utilities apt-cacher-ng - caching ...
23
votes
5answers
2k views

Is there an “unofficial” software center with all the PPAs?

Many questions are answered simply with add this repository and install. I understand that Ubuntu developers cannot quickly verify all packages and make them available in official repositories. But ...
22
votes
5answers
17k views

Will python2.7 be available for 10.04 in the future?

Since Ubuntu 10.04 is an LTS release will it support python 2.7 as a default package maintainer version or at least have a python2.7 package in future? Since it will be the last major python 2.x ...