Questions about the management of packages, in particular the `dpkg` system.

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346
votes
15answers
458k views

How to list all installed packages?

I'd like to output a list of all installed packages into a text file, so that I can review it and bulk-install on another system. How to do this?
209
votes
13answers
217k views

How do I resolve unmet dependencies after adding a PPA?

Occasionally, when I'm installing stuff, I get an error like the following: Some packages could not be installed. This may mean that you have requested an impossible situation or if you are using the ...
193
votes
11answers
139k views

“The following packages have been kept back:” Why and how do I solve it?

I just added a PPA repository for the development version of the GIMP, but I get this error The following packages have been kept back: gimp gimp-data libgegl-0.0-0 libgimp2.0 Why and how can I ...
131
votes
19answers
107k views

How can I install software or packages without Internet (offline)?

I have a friend who has got a computer that is not connected to the Internet. Is there any way to install software offline easily?
108
votes
14answers
57k views

Best way to backup all settings, list of installed packages, tweaks, etc?

If I want to make a backup of everything I have done since the fresh install of Ubuntu, what are the possible options? What all should I backup? I want to get all the settings that I changed, all the ...
106
votes
6answers
36k views

Is aptitude still considered superior to apt-get?

When I first started with Ubuntu using aptitude was the 'in-thing', with some stated improvements over apt-get. Am I correct in saying that apt-get has now 'caught up' with aptitude, and it makes ...
103
votes
5answers
12k views

How can I tell, from the command line, whether the machine requires a reboot?

When you install certain updates (e.g. a new kernel) in Ubuntu Desktop, you get an indication that a reboot is required (in Lucid, the logout icon turns red). How can I check, from the command line, ...
97
votes
9answers
5k views

What's the difference between package managers?

I know Ubuntu/Kubuntu has several programs that can be used to install packages, such as apt-get, aptitude, and synaptic (and perhaps others). What are the differences between them, and which one is ...
97
votes
6answers
65k views

How can I install just security updates from the command line?

sudo apt-get upgrade installs all updates, not just security updates. I know that I can use Update Manager to select only important security updates, but is there a way to do this from the command ...
88
votes
9answers
53k views

How to prevent updating of a specific package?

Because of bug #693758 I'd like to prevent apt-get upgrade and Update Manager from updating the "libgtk2.0-0" package. How can this be achieved?
76
votes
5answers
69k views

How do I get a list of installed files from a package?

I want to know where I can find my installed application when I installed it on Ubuntu using package manager. I installed RabbitMQ and ran locate rabbitmq which gave me following result: ...
60
votes
5answers
107k views

What is the correct way to completely remove an application?

I've searched the net for such information and found different command lines, like these ones: sudo apt-get remove application sudo apt-get remove application* sudo apt-get remove --purge ...
58
votes
5answers
18k views

How do I find the package that provides a file?

Simple enough question: is there some shell command (or GUI method) I can use that, given the path to a file on my system, tells me what package put it there? Assuming the file did in fact come from a ...
57
votes
11answers
7k views

Why can't I update applications without upgrading the whole OS?

In Ubuntu, once a release is out the software one has installed receives security updates only. In Windows, I can get new versions of programs with new features. How can Windows do this and why can't ...
50
votes
2answers
37k views

How can I see all versions of a package that are available in the archive?

Is there a way I can see all the versions that are in the archives that I have configured in sources.list. I can see the last version of each archive with "apt-get policy", but how can I see all? Is ...
50
votes
1answer
8k views

What is the difference between upstream and downstream when referring to who to go to as a developer?

What is the difference between upstream and downstream when referring to who (or where) to go to as a developer or packager?
48
votes
4answers
60k views

Requires installation of untrusted packages?

I tried installing VLC Player yesterday, and I got the Requires installation of untrusted packages error. I searched for hours for a solution to this problem, and finally came upon a suggestion that ...
48
votes
3answers
106k views

How can you completely remove a package?

I am trying to do a clean install of the octave3.2 package. To do this, I removed it, then tried to reinstall it. When I reinstalled, an error occurred. It could be a bug in the package, but I ...
43
votes
1answer
1k views

What is Ubuntu's policy on keeping old kernels

I've just run out of disk space on /. Looking into the situation I realised that since first installing 12.04, Ubuntu has upgraded the kernel ~23 times and has kept every old kernel, binaries and ...
41
votes
10answers
23k views

How can I strip down Ubuntu?

I'm trying to fix what I consider a bloated install of Ubuntu. When I install Ubuntu on a machine, I get things that I don't want - web browsers, office applications, media players, accessibility ...
39
votes
3answers
13k views

How can I tell what package requires a reboot of my system?

I have unattended-upgrade set up on my Ubuntu systems. Occasionally I will log in remotely to one of them and I'll see a message informing me that I need to reboot the system (in order to complete ...
36
votes
7answers
19k views

Is it possible to get a list of most recently installed packages?

Is it possible to get a list of packages that were most recently installed through apt-get?
33
votes
5answers
23k views

How can I check the available version of a package in the repositories?

How can I check the version of the available package in the Ubuntu repositories without installing it?
33
votes
3answers
19k views

How can I restore configuration files?

I would like to restore LightDM to its default state, because for some reason /etc/lightdm/unity-greeter.conf is now an empty file. Deleting /etc/lightdm/unity-greeter.conf and then running sudo ...
26
votes
5answers
1k views

How can I check if a package is installed (no superuser privileges)?

At our university we can get almost any ubuntu package installed we want, but we are not superusers ourselves (we need to request packages being installed). With some libraries it is not always easy ...
26
votes
6answers
21k views

How do I enable the “partner” repository?

I keep seeing places refer to the "partner" repository as a place I can get software, how can I enable this repository? Please specify how to do this graphically and via command line.
26
votes
2answers
22k views

How do you run a 32-bit program on a 64-bit version of Ubuntu?

I have a 64-bit version of Ubuntu 13.10. I want to run a 32-bit version of a program. However I see ia32-libs is not included in 13.10. Is there a replacement package for this or what?
25
votes
10answers
18k views

How do I install and manage RPMs?

I have a burning desire to install RPMs onto my Ubuntu installation - is this possible? Can I use Yum - or another RPM Package Management tool?
25
votes
6answers
41k views

How to uninstall a .deb package?

Suppose I download a .deb package from a website and install it. (I assume that when I double click the .deb file, the package is installed through a GUI that interfaces with dpkg right?) How can I ...
24
votes
4answers
18k views

How to list package dependencies (reverse dependencies)? [duplicate]

In order to research what caused the installation of a given package, I'd like to get a list of packages which depend on that package. I couldn't find anything obvious in man dpkg.
23
votes
4answers
117k views

How do I enable the “Universe” repository?

How do I get to Universe Repository of Ubuntu software as mentioned in Ubuntu 12.04 LTS? I am installing 12.04 Ubuntu. Please help.
23
votes
5answers
34k views

How can I find out if a specific program is installed? [duplicate]

I want to find out if a program - Chromium for example - is installed on Ubuntu or not. Manually or as a package. How do I know if a program is installed via command line?
23
votes
3answers
3k views

Command-line equivalences of some tasks in Synaptic

I already use apt-get for most of my package management. Yet, there are times when I occasionally need to use Synaptic to do certain things. I would like to learn the equivalent commands for doing the ...
23
votes
5answers
1k views

Is there an “unofficial” software center with all the PPAs?

Many questions are answered simply with add this repository and install. I understand that Ubuntu developers cannot quickly verify all packages and make them available in official repositories. But ...
22
votes
6answers
9k views

How do I remove all packages from a certain repository?

For a smooth upgrade from 10.04 to 10.10, I would like to remove all packages which are not in the default repositories (e.g. chromium PPA and third-party repositories). What is the easiest way ...
22
votes
1answer
5k views

What's the difference between flashplugin-installer and adobe-flashplugin?

I usually installed flashplugin-installer and by chance noticed that in the partner repository the Flash entry says it's not installed. It also says the package flashplugin-installer will be removed ...
21
votes
6answers
44k views

How to install Google-Earth 64bit in Ubuntu 13.10, ia32-libs Dependency error

I want to install Google-Earth & it requires ia32-libs. So, I did apt-get install ia32-libs but error pops as Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... ...
21
votes
4answers
6k views

How can I list all packages I've installed from a particular PPA?

How can I list all packages I've installed from a particular PPA? Command-line answers preferred. Related question: how can I list all installed packages that are not available from the main Ubuntu ...
21
votes
4answers
9k views

What are the common maintenance tasks?

When i was using windows, i used to run defrags, ccleaner and revouninstaller once a month to keep the system and the registry clean. I know ubuntu (and all linux distro) has a different system ...
21
votes
1answer
12k views

Restoring all data and dependencies from dpkg --set-selections '*'

So I can run on one machine: dpkg --get-selections '*' > selection.txt On another machine: dpkg --set-selections < selection.txt ... followed by either of the following: aptitude install ...
21
votes
0answers
4k views

How can I install the latest version of Sun Java (JRE)? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How can I install Oracle Java JRE 7? Is there a reliable method to install the current version of Sun Java? Update 18 is in the repos, but it looks like Sun is up to ...
20
votes
3answers
15k views

How to reinstall Terminal?

While fixing package dependencies, the terminal application went missing, and now I cannot locate the application. Is there a way to reinstall the terminal application?
19
votes
8answers
9k views

How to see packages installed on a given date using aptitude

Does anyone know if there's an easy way to find a list of packages installed, sorted by date, when using aptitude (or apt-get)? I was installing a bunch of packages to try something new, and it ...
19
votes
4answers
2k views

Is there a difference between installing an application via Ubuntu Software Center or a terminal?

I would like to ask a very basic question but I have never thought about it before. Well, when someone installs an application from terminal, he has to add the repository first, right? On the other ...
19
votes
2answers
26k views

How to force installation of kernel updates when using apt-get upgrade?

To update my server I use apt-get upgrade. But when there are kernel updates I always need to do apt-get install linux-.... because apt-get update does not install them. Is there a way I can tell it ...
19
votes
1answer
562 views

Use apt directly vs apt-*?

I just found that there is a apt command that you can use directly: $sudo apt apt 1.0.1ubuntu2 for amd64 compiled on Apr 10 2014 13:03:39 Usage: apt [options] command CLI for apt. Basic ...
18
votes
2answers
17k views

How to set up and use a virtual python environment in Ubuntu?

Python virtual environments are used to create isolated python environments to avoid dependency and version conflicts, and also indirectly takes care of permission issues. But what is the easiest way ...
18
votes
2answers
4k views

How is Ubuntu more updated than Debian?

I am reading Debian vs. Ubuntu vs. Linux Mint: Which Distribution Should You Use? Ubuntu, on the other hand, is made to include a good combination of new and stable ... Some packages can be used ...
18
votes
4answers
7k views

How do I find out which repository a package comes from?

Is there a method or command which can tell from which repository a package is coming from?
18
votes
4answers
40k views

How do I re-install Network Manager without an internet connection?

I have only wireless connection, one computer with a connection and 4gb usb . My second computer has no network connection, because I have deleted it from the software center. However, now I want to ...