Questions dealing with Ubuntu's layout of files, permissions, and files that reside in special locations on disk.

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55
votes
9answers
92k views

What is the equivalent to the Windows “Program Files” folder? (Where do things go when I install them?)

What is the Ubuntu equivalent to the Windows C:\Program Files folder? This is where Windows stores the system wide data for applications.
60
votes
8answers
169k views

How do I view all available HDD's/partitions?

I found a 6 GB IDE HDD in my basement. I want to plug it in and see what might be on it. The drive seems to be recognized in BIOS. I can't find it in Ubuntu to view files, and Ubuntu is the only OS ...
29
votes
3answers
19k views

How to move Ubuntu to an SSD

My current situation is: One hard disk Dual boot Ubuntu 11.04 and Windows 7. Partitions: 100MB Windows System thingy 144GB Main Windows 160GB Ubuntu 4GB Swap 12GB System Restore stuff Now I want ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

I have a directory named -H and would like to change the name of it [duplicate]

I am taking a class at Pluralsight and made the mistake of typing 'express -H' as instructed. Now I have a dir named -H and Ubuntu will not let me access it or otherwise deal with it. I would like to ...
54
votes
11answers
80k views

How can I securely erase a hard drive?

I'm planning on selling a USB external hard drive that currently contains an old Ubuntu installation with stored passwords and banking information. How can I securely erase the drive before selling ...
1
vote
2answers
417 views

The best way to create a root filesystem, split between read only and writable

My aim is to create a system where the main parts of the root filesystem are stored on a read-only SD card, with writeable parts located on an SSD set to rw. This is to be done with a view to keeping ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

Use of “cp” command between root user's home and plain root

How do I use the "cp" command to copy files from root@pcname:/home/username # to root@pcname:~ # I have been able to use the "mv" command to move a file, but when I use "cp," it tells me that the ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Apparmor problems

I followed this persons solved question here on how to mount Apparmor: https://forum.backbox.org/general-support/apparmor-is-not-working/. After I did however, I came up with this black screen with ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Why are ext4 filesystems owned by root?

I formatted a flash drive to ext4 and created a new partition on my hard drive with fs type ext4. Both were owned by root and I had trouble writing files. Why does that happen? Also, if that has no ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Solved - Massive filesystem corruption after latest update on LUKS encrypted drive

I booted my machine this morning and was greeted by a busybox shell. I booted from a live USB, mounted the drive with cryptsetup, but when I try to open it it says my ubunutu--root-vg has an ...
17
votes
10answers
20k views

How to hide a(n) (NTFS) partition from ubuntu

I need to hide an NTFS partition from listing in the nautilus. How can I achieve that? Is there any tool to do that? And how can I hide files in ubuntu (except . operator)
0
votes
0answers
8 views

What is the IO Block property in stat command in ubuntu?

srimanth@srimanth-Inspiron-N5110:~$ stat /home/srimanth/Videos/Better\ Call\ Saul/Better.Call.Saul.S01E02.720p.HDTV.X264-DIMENSION.mkv File: ‘/home/srimanth/Videos/Better Call ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

I want to move /run/shm to my /home directory

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda6 9.1G 8.4G 214M 98% / none 4.0K 0 4.0K 0% /sys/fs/cgroup udev 1.9G 8.0K 1.9G 1% /dev tmpfs ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Migrate root filesystem from btrfs to ext4

I want migrate a Ubuntu installation off of btrfs as root because it frequently hangs and causes out of space errors and I really don't need the snapshots. The partition was created empty and not ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How could I set a file overlay on my whole system?

I need to build and test system components on my Ubuntu laptop and I want to be sure that it won't damage (or replace any my current components) (I plan to build and test gtk, gstreamer and ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Stale file handle

i added new structure member for creator in ext2 inode structure at ext2.h, currently i downloaded linux-3.18.7 and modified and i enable the ext2_fs option in.config file, after compilation i entered ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Binding /var during installation

I want to install an SSD into my desktop PC, putting there the root and other folders like /etc. What I don't want to put there is /var, because I work with databases pretty often. So, what I want to ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Is it possible to prevent a file from being deleted unless in safe mode?

Is it possible to make a file only deletable when in safe mode on linux? Specifically I am using ubuntu 14.04 and I need to prevent a file from being deleted. If this solution is not possible is ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Explanation of entries in dmesg log in Ubuntu Server 14.04

A few days ago I did a clean install of Ubuntu Server 14.04. Everything is working fine, but when my system boots I get these entries in dmesg log: [ 3.106082] EXT4-fs (dm-0): mounted filesystem ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Recover the directory structure of a lost LVM Logical volume?

I am aware of the huge amount of data recovery questions on this site, and reading all of them I think my case is unique enough to warrant a new question. how it came to be I set up a LVM with ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

ubuntu file system memory allocation

While building ubuntu OS image from source how to allocate specific memory to specific folders of filesystem i.e. /home will get xx GB, /sbin will get xxy GB, /bin get yytt GB etc. Is there any ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

How can I design one Linux file system? [closed]

In an interview, I came across this question. He asked me "Design a linux file system." He asked to give what all things I would need, Data structures and all. Can anyone help me in this that how I ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

Help with restoring windows 7 boot from ubuntu grub

I just sold my old laptop on ebay and had Windows 7 and Ubuntu 14.04 installed on separate partitions on the same hd. When I restored factory settings to Windows 7 I deleted the partition that Ubuntu ...
45
votes
8answers
34k views

How to find (and delete) duplicate files

I have a largish music collection and there are some duplicates in there. Is there any way to find duplicate files. At a minimum by doing a hash and seeing if two files have the same hash. Bonus ...
-1
votes
1answer
21 views

how to extend root (/) partition by freeing ext4 partition? [duplicate]

My root (/) partition is full and i want to extend my root file system by freeing extra memory present in other partition which is ext4. How to free some space with ext4 allocation and how to extend ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Cannot create File system on HD

When I run this command: partprobe ; mkfs -t ext4 -q /dev/tbdata/mediashare I get this error: Error: /dev/mapper/tbdata-vmbox: unrecognised disk label Could not stat /dev/tbdata/mediashar --- No ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Lost a desktop folder

I am pretty new to Linux and was trying to change the name of a desktop folder from Documents to Media when I got an error message about the pathway. I restarted the computer and lost the folder. I ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

btrfs is full, but only half a disk is really used [duplicate]

I see this: root@wm-bot:/var/lib# du -ksh /var/lib/mysql/ 2.0G /var/lib/mysql/ root@wm-bot:/var/lib# root@wm-bot:/var/lib# df -h df: `/public/backups': Stale NFS file handle Filesystem ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Drive path not present at system start up [duplicate]

I am new to Ubuntu. I have performed a search but have not found any info as yet as to how to solve a small task; perhaps you can help me out here: Is there any way to make the system recognize a ...
0
votes
1answer
9 views

How do you Identify apps or procs that create large tmp files?

I am having problems when using GNS3 on a Win7 host running a VMware Workstation Ubuntu VM. Not sure what app or process is creating large 3+GB temp files filing up my drive. How can tell. Below is ...
1
vote
3answers
5k views

How do I access the file system as a root or owner?

I need to add online store configuration files in file system var/www. but I can't access the file system, because it says that only owner can access it, the owner is root. So, how can I access those ...
-1
votes
1answer
59 views

Low disk Space in Root Filesystem Error

The system gives me the following error: The volume "Filesystem Root" has only 713.9 MB disk space remaining. You can free up disk space by removing unused programs or files, or moving files to ...
19
votes
5answers
4k views

Find directories with lots of files in

So a client of mine got an email from Linode today saying their server was causing Linode's backup service to blow up. Why? Too many files. I laughed and then ran: # df -ih Filesystem Inodes ...
107
votes
5answers
102k views

How is the /tmp directory cleaned up?

How is the /tmp directory cleaned up? Is it automatic? If so, how frequently is it cleaned up?
0
votes
2answers
62 views

Unable to write to ext4, No space left on device?

After creating a folder in my ext4 partition, copying some data to it, then moving that whole folder to another drive, I became unable to add additional data to the ext4 partition when I boot into ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Proper Linux filesystem from Ubuntu ISO file

It is known that one can install a Ubuntu iso file on a usb or hard drive, which itself yields the proper Linux filesystem which consists of folders: bin/ boot/ dev/ etc/ home/ lib/ media/ mnt/ opt/ ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Resizing filesystems

I have following filesystems on my Ubuntu 12.04: u@czarnobog:~$ df -hT Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/md1-md1 ext4 31G 27G 2.7G 91% / udev ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Why the file has 0755, but 'Permission denied'?

Why the file has 0755, but I got an error 'Permission denied'? root@vagrant-ubuntu-trusty-64:~/.rbenv/versions/2.2.0/bin# ls -la total 14000 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 9 20:25 . drwxr-xr-x ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Change permissions of / of mounted disk

I've accidentally changed the permissions of /on my system, thus obviously nothing is working anymore now. I can access my server via a rescue system and mount the disk. How can I fix the ...
1
vote
2answers
3k views

I can't access my device partitions?

I can't access my files in other partitions even if I mounted them by mount /dev/sda12? How can I solve this problem? on Using cat /etc/fstab /etc/mtab I got the following output. /etc/fstab: ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

How to remove disk lock [closed]

I have installed ubuntu 14:04 version, I already write the password on the disk. turns out it was too long for me, I want to disable it, how? I am a beginner, need an answer
3
votes
1answer
899 views

'mount -t ntfs-3g' Fails (exit code 1) but 'ntfs-3g' Succeeds

I'm currently on 12.04LTS and I've installed a couple of updates. (not sure which) Now my nautilus cannot mount any NTFS partition (complaining about exit code 1), and indeed sudo mount -t ntfs-3g ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

How to get rid of more than one million ghostfiles?

I periodically run Bleachbit 1.0 on my Lubuntu machine (kernel 3.13.0-35-generic). Last time, I checked the option to wipe free disk space, mainly to try it. The program got stuck on a message saying ...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

Why does my root filesystem keep becoming read-only?

I've lately been having an issue with my root filesystem becoming readonly. It happens some amount of time after boot. I don't know exactly when it happens, as I don't usually notice it until ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Missing Files-my “music” folder is lost

I am using 14.04 version of ubuntu,when I opened my files I found my music folder was missing.Clicking on it says somthing spelling error.I have not yet done partition i.e I have no drives,there all ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

mount boot camp partition

I have my hard drive from my mac it has a boot camp patition, but the mac is dead. Ubutnu sees the partition, calling it /dev/sdc3 and reporting that it has a basic linux data partition. I tried to ...
0
votes
3answers
4k views

Get the access to the folder file system/root

I am using a live version of Xubuntu on USB for a extraordinary maintenance of my PC. I have to copy a single file inside the folder file system/root. Currently I can browse the complete folder file ...
0
votes
3answers
40 views

How to select a file without opening it?

This is probably a quite trivial question, but I cannot seem to find the answer on-line. I set my file browser to single click opening as it is easier to work with, but, since clicking opens the file ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

how to automount sda2 partition

How do I mount sda2 from sda1? thufir@doge:~$ thufir@doge:~$ sudo parted -l Model: ATA ST500DM002-1BD14 (scsi) Disk /dev/sda: 500GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B Partition Table: msdos ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Ways of resolve case conflict when moving files to a Dropbox folder

As documented here, Dropbox appends (Case Conflict) to a file moved in ubuntu to a dropbox folder already containing a file of the same name (ignoring case). I would like to set up alternative ways ...