Questions dealing with Ubuntu's layout of files, permissions, and files that reside in special locations on disk.

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11
votes
7answers
9k views

How folders created in /var/run on each reboot

In recent ubuntus (specifically, what interests me the most is 12.04) /var/run is tmpfs, and thus I assume it starts empty with each reboot. Yet, I see there some folders, like /var/run/mysqld and ...
1
vote
0answers
8 views

Lost+found folder still present even after reformatting partition - how to remove?

I'm trying to reorganize the partitions on the 2 HDDs that I have on my system. One of the partitions (ext4) is 883 GiB (according to gparted) and apparently has 14 GiBs used. However, if I mount ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Fat32 mounting as read only

I've edited my /etc/fstab to contain the following: UUID=F285-17E1 /media/TV-1 vfat rw 0 0 UUID=6CBA-1DEC /media/TV-2 vfat rw 0 0 UUID=7D3B-170D /media/TV-3 vfat rw 0 0 UUID=BBFF-1EE4 ...
0
votes
3answers
3k views

Get the access to the folder file system/root

I am using a live version of Xubuntu on USB for a extraordinary maintenance of my PC. I have to copy a single file inside the folder file system/root. Currently I can browse the complete folder file ...
2
votes
1answer
21 views

Will creating a directory inside a system directory with 777 permission cause security vulnerability?

Can creating directories with 777 permission inside system directories cause any security weakness? For example, say I open a directory called Custom inside /usr/share/backgrounds/ and give it 777 ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Whenever I open my home (~) folder with nautilus, there is an endless loading

Ubuntu 14.04. Kernel 3.13.1-031301-generic. If I change to another folder the endless loading (*) from hard drive stops. I don't have much in that folder. Any idea what might cause that, or how I ...
-3
votes
0answers
15 views

Will mhddfs meet my needs? Or do you have another suggestion?

I have multiple HDDs ranging in size from 30 GB to 3 TB. The majority of them are currently filled to the brim. I will be adding new drives from time to time and want some type of volume management ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

grub rescue, can't boot from usb

I have ubuntu and windows 8.1 dual boot. Suddenly I got the grub rescue screen. I tried grub rescue > ls command and it lists down (hd0) (hd0,msdos1) (hd0,msdos2) (hd1,msdos1) (hd1) when ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Is there a Relation be Uboot and UImage?

Can anyone explain me what is a UImage and how it is related to Uboot ?? I understand that UImage is the kernel Image.. But why it is so called and not a Image file..
-1
votes
0answers
17 views

What should I do when my BeagleBone Black root filesystem suddenly turns read-only and won't allow me to execute the reboot command?

I first noticed the problem in nano, when editing some programs, hunting down an IOError issue with a program I was writing: Then, after seeing a feed about hard drive corruption, suggesting to ...
190
votes
6answers
165k views

How do I determine the total size of a directory (folder) from the command line?

Is there a simple command to display the total aggregate size (disk usage) of all files in a directory (folder)? I have tried these, and they don't do what I want: ls -l, which only displays the ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Ubuntu i386 installed with bad DDR2 2GB memory card

After great trial and error, I was able to successfully install the Desktop version of Ubuntu 14.10 i386 on my PC, which is an old DELL Pentium 4 OptiPlex 210L. It was a case where an installation ...
0
votes
2answers
11 views

Accessing exported gcode from Slic3r?

I've been using Ubuntu for about a month and am definitely a novice, apologies if this question is trivial. I use a program called Slic3r to create gcode (machine instructions) from stl files for 3D ...
-1
votes
0answers
11 views

Create policy in aufs

AUfs provides three policies to tackle the issue wherein there are many rw branches in the UnionFS. But is it possible to give priorities to the rw directories there by i can select a particular ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Problem with NIS configuration

I tried to configure NIS in a server and a client both running Ubuntu 14.04 following this guide and this official guide. After a reboot the client machine got locked with this message several times ...
0
votes
2answers
80 views

directories for dummies [duplicate]

I am new to Ubuntu. I am trying to learn how to SRM a file, however I need to know how the directory name in order to type it out in the terminal. Can someone please help me figure out how to see ...
2
votes
1answer
16 views

Can I make a boot drive with my desktop

I want to make a boot drive with all of the system files the same as the files on my desktop. I want to just plug it in and have it boot up with all my settings and files and everything running when I ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

What would cause a system freeze from navigation to /proc?

This is really driving me crazy, if I pull up nautilus and navigate to /proc, my system will completely freeze up. The only way to get out seems to be to SysReq RSEINUB, but sometimes even that ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

No mountable file systems on Macbook Pro

Downloaded 14.10 to install on a Macbook Pro. Then I get a message ubuntu-14.10-desktop. no mountable file systems
0
votes
0answers
8 views

expanding filesystem

I`m totaly newb in Linux-like systems. Can u help me expand filesystem? Ubuntu server is hosted on Xen. I have some additional space in hypervisor but do not know how to do resize in the system. ...
0
votes
2answers
17 views

tmp file in root folder with large size/ very long name

As the title, I have this file in root folder and I don't know what it is. Can I safely remove it? -rw------- 1 root root 925M lug 22 15:28 tmpTKb8nhN6ke4IJ bnWrrgcIz-iyhS8H5V ...
0
votes
1answer
96 views

Can't view files on Windows 8 partition

I seem to be having a problem with Windows 8 on my desktop PC (not able to boot), so I created a bootable USB stick with Ubuntu to see if I can use it to access my hard disk and hopefully recover at ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

What is 'None' that shows up in the filesystem in Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS?

$ df -h S.ficheros Tamaño Usados Disp Uso% Montado en /dev/sda5 36G 11G 23G 33% / none 4,0K 0 4,0K 0% /sys/fs/cgroup udev 1,5G 4,0K 1,5G 1% ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Why are the MBR and GRUB present as files in the Linux filesystem?

A computer's master boot record consists of raw binary and does not reside on any sort of partition. Legacy GRUB and GRUB 2 are installed to the sectors inbetween the end of the MBR and the start of ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

How to Confirm user group permissions in the current fuse user group

I have created a folder "mtp" in /Media and its /media/mtp. The basic property tells: Type:- Folder(inode/directory) and in Permissions it shows Owner and Group as root. It says you are not the ...
1
vote
2answers
21 views

Number pair prefix to config files

I have noticed some config files having a prefix. E.g. Inside my /etc/php5/cli/conf.d: 05-opcache.ini 10-pdo.ini 20-curl.ini ... Could someone explain this? I am thinking something along the ...
61
votes
1answer
36k views

Differences between /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/sbin [duplicate]

I'm running an Ubuntu Server 13.04, but I see the same on a 12.04: I have six directories with command files. These are: /bin /sbin /usr/bin /usr/sbin /usr/local/bin /usr/local/sbin What are the ...
0
votes
2answers
18 views

Is there anyway to undo wipefs?

So I (very stupidly) performed a wipefs on my XFS formatted 4tb Linux (software) raid 5 array in trying to convert over to a bcache setup (I was following some instructions online and should have paid ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Cannot delete a folder

I have Segate backup + 1TB external HDD recently since 1 month i am unable to copy the files effectively sometimes the copying is 10 kb/s like that. and sometimes iam getting error like Input/output ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

chown not working on remote filesystem, other commands (e.g., chmod) do work

I am trying to change the ownership of a file on a remote filesystem, but chown responds with chown: changing ownership of ‘foo’: No such file or directory However, as you can see, foo is there and ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

File system went read only after adding ssh key

I followed this guide to set up ssh key on my digital ocean droplet, but since I made step 4 my file system went read-only. I changed /etc/ssh/sshd_config from PermitRootLogin yes to PermitRootLogin ...
1
vote
1answer
525 views

print contents of a directory structure (filesystem) to CSV on the command line

How can I catalog the contents of a filesystem to a CSV file? This is particularly useful for removable media. I've found a couple links that point in this direction: AskUbuntu.com: listing files ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

File creating permission Denied [duplicate]

I have removed Windows 7 and installed Unbuntu 14.04. I have successfully installed LAMP but the problem is that I cannot save a file with a PHP extension in local-server using the Bluefish editor . ...
2
votes
1answer
12k views

Difficulty trying to mount an ISO file “mount: you must specify the filesystem type”

I have an .iso file which I would like to mount. I have made a folder in /mnt/iso as a mount point. Now I try: sudo mount -o loop filename.iso /mnt/iso and the reply is: mount: you must specify ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

How to disable LVM for sda?

When I installed Ubuntu 14.04, I check use LVM option. I want to disable LVM for sda, but I don't want to wipe this disk. Is it possible?
0
votes
0answers
77 views

Unable to create a directory on a mounted file system (FUSE). mkdir: cannot create directory `dirname': File exists

I was trying out the FUSE file system. I downloaded fuse 2.9.3 and installed it to a directory in my Home directory. I did rest of the work as superuser (as I was denied to manipulate the mounted ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Copy a file from one ext4 partition to other

I have two ext4 partition and I want to copy some files from one partition to other in GUI not using terminal, but it does not allow me to do so. It simply a root permission problem. I just want to ...
4
votes
2answers
162 views

Is XFS a distributed file system or a journaling file system?

Is XFS a distributed file system or a journaling file system? In Wikipedia it says that XFS is a journaling file system, but in the Berkely website they mentioned that it is a serverless file ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Why have all my files become read-only?

Okay so I was trying to install spotify onto my ubuntu...and I don't know what I did wrong, but I do not have spotify and all of my files have become read-only (everything in the file system has a ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Sanddisk drive write protected

My sanddisk usb write protected i tried ashokkrishna@ashokkrishna-Lenovo-B560:~$ sudo mount -o rw /dev/sdc1 /mnt mount: block device /dev/sdc1 is write-protected, mounting read-only # sudo mkfs -t ...
11
votes
2answers
7k views

Can and should UDF be used as a hard drive format?

Several time recently I've seen UDF suggested as the solution to a cross platform format for a drive used on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows XP and above. I've searched here and not found the same ...
5
votes
4answers
32k views

Damaged SD card (badly unmounted?) How to fix?

First Off I'm using Ubuntu 12.04 on a laptop with a built in card reader. I have a sandisk 8Gig micro sd card that came with my HTC Desire HD phone. Unfortunately I had mounted it to a windows ...
25
votes
4answers
29k views

How do I use OverlayFS?

This answer and email message indicate that something called "OverlayFS" is available in Ubuntu 11.10 and will forcefully replace aufs in Ubuntu 12.04. How do I use it? Where is its documentation?
0
votes
0answers
13 views

gdisk before umount -> file system corrupted

I think I did something stupid, but I don't know how to fix it... Please help: I connected a NTFS format 2TB HDD to my ubuntu, and would like to format it to ext4 I mounted it, and copied the files ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

Why does my root filesystem keep becoming read-only?

I've lately been having an issue with my root filesystem becoming readonly. It happens some amount of time after boot. I don't know exactly when it happens, as I don't usually notice it until ...
1
vote
0answers
66 views

An error occurred while mounting /

for no reason I have not been able to boot Ubuntu 14.04 today. Splash screen at first displayed "An error occurred while mounting /". I tried to do filesystem check: ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo fsck.ext4 ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Block-level deduplicating filesystem

I'm looking for a deduplicating copy-on-write filesystem solution for general user data such as /home and backups of it. It should use online/inline/synchronous deduplication at the block-level using ...
52
votes
9answers
81k views

What is the equivalent to the Windows “Program Files” folder? (Where do things go when I install them?)

What is the Ubuntu equivalent to the Windows C:\Program Files folder? This is where Windows stores the system wide data for applications.
95
votes
6answers
28k views

How to understand the Ubuntu file system layout?

In Windows there’re perhaps only a couple of important folders (by important I mean important in my logical picture of the Windows file system) in the installation drive (in my case C:\). Namely ...
9
votes
1answer
14k views

What represent .Xauthority file?

I had a problem wherein I couldn't get passed the login window in Ubuntu 12.04, even though I have the correct username and password, it still comes back to the login screen. I've found a solution ...