Questions dealing with Ubuntu's layout of files, permissions, and files that reside in special locations on disk.

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89 views

initramfs unable to find a live medium containing a live file system

When I turn on my laptop I am getting the following message: BusyBox v1.21.1 (Ubuntu 1:1.21.0-1ubuntu1) built-in shell (ash) Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands. (initramfs) Unable to find ...
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1answer
327 views

How do I give myself access to /var/www to create and edit files and folders in it without 'sudo'?

I have a folder in my web server /var/www. I need to add files to the folder, but the system will not let me unless I use sudo. Is it possible to give myself access to modify the folder and its ...
1
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1answer
50 views

Allowing an OS to use unclaimed free disk space on other partitions for temporary purposes?

Let's say you have something like the following situation: three partitions, one small with OS, and several bigger ones, let's assume all are ext4: / - 10 GB size, 9 GB used, 1 GB free /...
3
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1answer
74 views

Is it possible to change the filesystem type of the Compact Disc (CD) in linux using terminal commands?

I have a new Compact Disc (CD) which is sony(rewritable) and its Filesystem type is UDF. Now it is possible to change it to CDFS filesystem using terminal commands or any other software? The reason ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Why there are 2 directories having same content?

cd /proc/$$/root/bin cd /bin After running ls command on both the directory, I found that content of both directories are same (which is nothing but list of commands). Is there any specific reason ...
2
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0answers
37 views

What is the partition type ('t' command) in fdisk good for?

I can't understand the difference between the filesystem specified using fdisk's command line interface with t. And the one used to format it later using say mkefs. Why do we need to specify it twice?...
1
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1answer
43 views

When copying files via USB from Ubuntu to Windows 7, there is a different number of files

What's up guys, I'm trying to backup some Ubuntu files to my Windows machine. I have all the files in one folder and when I click "Properties" in Ubuntu it says 696 items, 742.6 MB. When I copied that ...
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0answers
8 views

Writemode journalling mode

From what I understand in data mode both inode and file data are stored in journal and in ordered mode only inode data is kept in jounral and removed after file data is successfully written. What I ...
8
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2answers
2k views

I have a file named “-t”. How to remove it? [duplicate]

Output of "ls -l": -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Mar 4 08:22 -t When i try to do "rm '-t'": rm: invalid option -- 't' Try 'rm ./-t' to remove the file '-t'. Try 'rm --help' for more information.
8
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1answer
399 views

How does ctime change?

I'm trying to precisely understand when the ctime timestamp of a file is changed. In many places (e.g., in the accepted answer here) it is suggested that any change in the file attributes will also ...
0
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1answer
223 views

Why does lsof complain about tracefs?

Every execution of lsof issues a warning about the TraceFS: $ lsof any-file lsof: WARNING: can't stat() tracefs file system /sys/kernel/debug/tracing Output information may be incomplete. $ ...
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1answer
61 views

In which system file does 'export' command make changes?

I installed java-8 using a PPA. After that I gave a command: export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-8-oracle I had heard somewhere that this command does temporary changes. But after many logouts and ...
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2answers
14 views

troubleshooting updatedb

I am taking a course that makes me go on terminal and run updatedb. but this is what I get: nonrootuser$ updatedb updatedb: can not open a temporary file for `/var/lib/mlocate/mlocate.db' so far I ...
1
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1answer
556 views

ext4 broken file system on ubuntu 14.04.4

I have a desktop computer with Ubuntu Desktop 14.04.4 LTS 64-bit with an attached HDD USB 3.0 4TB Intenso 1 partition ext4 data drive only (no OS or Apps). After a sudden power failure I am unable to ...
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0answers
30 views

How to get to the right directory?

In sitting with Ubuntu mate 15.10 xx@ThinkPad-X250:~$ cd Desktop bash: cd: Desktop: No such file or directory xx@ThinkPad-X250:~$ cd downloads bash: cd: downloads: No such file or directory How ...
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2answers
109 views

Accidentally installed ubuntu on the whole disk instead of a specific partition

I had Linux installed on my laptop with 3 partitions: [System: 100Gb Ext4 Mount Point / ] [Data: 400Gb Ext4 Mount Point /media/Data] [Swap: 8Gb Swap] I needed to reinstall my system and wanted to ...
1
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0answers
29 views

After crash I get an unknown filesystem error

Today my PC crashed (I was kinda expecting it cos Firefox and full screen videos kinda crash my PC) and when I rebooted I got an error saying unknown filesystem. I booted to a live USB and the ssd ...
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0answers
39 views

USB read-only via graphic UI and writable via CLI

Why I'm unable to write on USB via Files (Nautilus, graphic UI) and I'm able to write on it using CLI? Using Files I'm getting the error: Error while copying to "DEVICENAME". This destination is read-...
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0answers
13 views

What should be compared with ullimit -n

I know that max number of opened files per user is set in $ ulimit -n What is the right way to get a number to compare it with? My guess would be $ lsof | grep "REG" | wc -l but this number ...
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0answers
93 views

Need help extracting data from a floppy disk formatted by an old drum machine

Alright, for context I make music using an old drum machine which uses 3.5" floppy disks (Emu SP-1200) and I am trying to take a look at what the OS binary and sound file formats are like. But I'm ...
2
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2answers
2k views

'cat': can't open file: Permission denied

I am trying to copy the whole / directory to some other location. When doing cp recursively, it fails on some files like:- / # ls -lrt /sys/module/nf_conntrack_ipv4/uevent --w------- 1 root ...
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0answers
67 views

Unable to mount root filesystem after cloning volume with dd

I am trying to clone a Ubuntu install on an 8GB SD card. I created an image of the volume using dd, then copied this image onto another SD card using dd again. The SD card contains 2 partitions: a ...
0
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1answer
184 views

How do I expand my filesystem? I have Ubuntu MATE on a Raspberry Pi 2

I have Ubuntu MATE on my 32gb micro SD card using a Raspberry Pi 2. I really need to know how to expand my file system. I looked it up, but all I got was an error (value out of range). I will list ...
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0answers
22 views

init.d location

I was looking through "man hier" but did not find the location of the folder init.d. The issue is that, it suddenly appeared in my home directory and has a little lock as if I am not able to access it....
2
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1answer
25 views

I have software (blender 2.76b) running as an “executable” from my home/documents folder. Should I move it to opt? ( (k)ubuntu 14.04)

I'm running (k)ubuntu 14.04 and everything I've read tells me to install 3rd party software in opt. everything is working fine but I want to know if I'm going to encounter problems later with add-ons ...
0
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1answer
22 views

How to run an application on a disk partition ubuntu

I have loaded /dev/pmem0 filesystem on /mnt/ramdisk. output of df command: Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/pmem0 307200 4120 303080 2% /mnt/...
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1answer
88 views

Symlink does not work for dropbox

I am backing up home folder by create a symlink in dropbox. What I did: cd ~/Dropbox mkdir backup && cd backup ln -s ~ What I checked: ln -l. The symlink is created. The dropbox folder ...
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0answers
14 views

Is there any downside to using hardlinks over copying?

Let's say I have a large file (over 1 GB) I want to copy to another place on my partition. Is there a downside to just creating a hardlink (ln /path/to/large/file /path/to/target) instead of using cp?...
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0answers
27 views

Giving r-x permissions to directories of other users

I have an Ubuntu 14.04.1 server with the such permissions scheme (given below in user:group format): root: root super: sudo master master1: master master2: master user1: simple1 user2: simple2 ... ...
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21 views

How file advisory locks in Unix system prevent unlrelated process from corrupting data?

I'm reading about Linux OS system (which is the kernel for Ubuntu) and reached the notion of advisory locks. According to Wikipedia, a programmer can use these locks if he wishes to do so, but he ...
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66 views

“sudo btrfs filesystem defragment -r /” can't defrag immutabe files, right?

Files made immutable by sudo chattr +i can't be defragmented by "sudo btrfs filesystem defragment". I get the message: "ERROR: defrag failed on /path/filename: Success total 1 failure" Is this a bug ...
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0answers
14 views

Bad practice to keep many subdirectories in single directory [duplicate]

I was wondering if it is bad practice (or performance, etc.) to keep many (10k+) sub-directories in a single directory. Is it better or the same to group those sub-directories into more sub-...
0
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1answer
82 views

Unable to access “136 GB Volume”

This error message is shown every time I try to access the flash drive. Error mounting /dev/sdc1 at /media/hp/868E-F233: Command-line`mount -t "exfat" -o "uhelper=udisks2,nodev,nosuid,uid=1000,gid=...
0
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1answer
128 views

How do I link the OpenAL library to eclipse in Ubuntu?

I just downloaded the OpenAL library using the command sudo apt-get install libopenal1 libopenal-dev, now I can't find where the library is on my system and how should it be linked with Eclipse. I am ...
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0answers
17 views

How to find the first device address of request using blktrace?

I have traces of running an "f2fs" on an usb-drive. I would like to use them as inputs to DiskSim. DiskSim requires the first block number that has been traced. Is there a way I can find that by ...
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0answers
42 views

The volume “Filesystem root” has only 0 MB

Yes this is a question that on surface has been asked previously. The difference with this question is that all the answers supplied make no results that work to fix this problem. I read, understood ...
1
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1answer
36 views

Ubuntu 15.10 doesn't seem to support sparse files

On Ubuntu 15.10 using ext4 when I perform truncate -s 512M test.img du -h test.img the output is 513M test.img however if I run du -h --apparent-size test.img the output is 512M test....
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0answers
36 views

xfs on raid0(mdadm) proper mounting

Reading manuals on howto tune xfs on raid is totally crazy. In my case I have raid0 of 2 disks with 512K chunk size. Physical disk block size is 4096 The correct su and sw should be su=512k and sw=2? ...
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0answers
22 views

How do I move a .iso file to root in Ubuntu? Tells me I do not have permissions

To create a bootable sd card I need to move the Ubuntu.iso to root so that Unetbootin will see it. The system tells me I do not have permissions.
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2answers
35 views

File system goes read-only when using file explorers

I have a problem with my 15.10 system and it goes as follows: When using Nemo or Nautilus (these are the two I've tried) works fine as long as I explore my home directory only. Visiting 'File System'...
4
votes
3answers
547 views

Size of device file ( missing in ls -l output )

When I try to print the device file output shows binary data in hexadecimal format. But upon doing a ls -l /dev/sda I get: brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 0 Jan 29 12:29 /dev/sda I don't ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Mount a disk at different points

What if I mount the same disk at two locations using different file systems? Will they just be like hardlinks referring to the same location or would it cause any issues? ex: # mount -t ext3 /dev/...
1
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1answer
68 views

Switching back to read-only filesystem

I am using the Nexus 4 with UbuntuTouch installed. I switched to a writable filesystem by this command: sudo mount -o remount,rw / and it worked perfectly. How to switch back correctly to read-...
2
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2answers
97 views

mounting error to access the drives in ubuntu 15.04

While trying to mount the drive it showing me an error like below...and  drive is not being mount ... “ Error mounting /dev/sda3 at /media/ubuntu/B840AE6C40AE30D4: Command-line `mount -t "ntfs" -o "...
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3answers
132 views

How to make a line of directories with one command?

With the mkdir command if I want this location to exist ~/test/panda/fat when only the ~ part of it exists so far I have to do something like this: mkdir ~/test mkdir ~/test/panda mkdir ~/test/panda/...
0
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1answer
84 views

Recover unreadable directory on ext4 partition

One of my directories in a ext4 filesystem on my SSD became unredable and I need to recover the files. Here is what I did to crash the filesystem: I accidentally created 1.5 million small files in ...
0
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0answers
50 views

mount xbox 360 formated disk

I have a game save data on a usb pen drive. Ubuntu doensnt recognize the disk file system though. I used the command fdisk -l, and tried installing netware 386 packages, but the disk still wound ...
1
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1answer
145 views

How to format a FAT32 USB as EXT4

I have a USB device /dev/sda1 and I want to format it as ext4. I have tried sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1 It gives warning, goes ahead and completes formatting without error. But when I check it using ...
1
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1answer
79 views

After update chrome won't open desktop is read only

I'm running Ubuntu 15.10 and just did a software update via the software update manager. Now chrome will not open neither will Firefox and if I try to copy anything to my desktop I get an error ...
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0answers
26 views

Directory converted to a file

I have an external HD formatted to ext4. Somehow a directory is now showing up as a file (i.e. it is missing the 'd' in the attributes). fsck does not show any errors. I don't believe that the ...