Questions about files beneath `/etc`: How to handle them, how they are important, how to make backups, how to find important information.

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7
votes
1answer
508 views

What is etc/alternatives used for?

What does /etc/alternatives stand for? How and why is it used? I found gnome-tex-editor in /usr/bin which is linked as follows: /usr/bin/gnome-text-editor -> /etc/alternatives/gnome-text-editor ...
6
votes
2answers
440 views

Is there an application to manage config files in the /etc folder with version control software?

I want make version control for config files in Ubuntu server. But I found out it's not easy for simply "git" whole etc folder, because so many file doesn't need to track and some time system will ...
5
votes
1answer
135 views

Preventing Users/Groups from accessing certain Domains

I have created a Study account which I use when doing anything school related work. It's purpose is to remove the distractions of my normal account, such as social media and news websites. I know ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

Keeping /etc folder on a remote server

I have etckeeper with default configuration (bazaar as VCS). I want to keep this repository on the remote server (for example on Amazon EC2 or, if possible, on Dropbox/Box.net/Ubuntu One). I tried to ...
4
votes
1answer
467 views

Why do configuration folders have *.d in their name [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Many directories have a “.d” suffix/extension. What does it mean? Why do most of the folders in /etc/* end with *.d I am just curious to know, why folders ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Sound only works from left speaker?

After installing Ubuntu 13.04 x64, I realised that my sound wasn't working (only headphone showed up in settings). Following this guide, I manually added my Dell Studio 1740 audio hardware to: ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

How to recover a deleted /etc/passwd?

I deleted the /etc/passwd file and cannot login now. I don't know the root password and tried lots of passwords, but none of them worked. How can I fix this?
3
votes
1answer
119 views

Replace /etc after reinstallation

I reinstalled Ubuntu 12.04 after a corruption caused by a faulty operation (not much interesting but you can read about it). The old system had three partitions, one for boot, one for / and one for ...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

How to fix Xubuntu LightDM Theme after installing unity.

After successfully installing Xubuntu 12.04.1 on my laptop, I decided to install Unity. That went OK but then I realized there was no themes. So then I installed the themes and artwork, and got a ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

How to run a script when suspending/resuming? - Sony VAIO Ubuntu 12.04

Question: How to assign a script to run when selecting the suspend option on the power menu? Context: I have a Sony VAIO laptop, which was a recent purchase. I have managed to install the AMD Radeon ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

What are the standard file permissions for the /etc directory(file)

I kinda screwed up the /etc directory by running: sudo chmod 417 /etc Leaving me unable to use sudo: sudo: can't open /etc/sudoers: permission denied. sudo: no valid sudoers sources foundm ...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

How to define an environment variable systemwide with /etc/environment?

I am trying to set an environment variable system wide. Following the ubuntu site recommendations , I set it up to my /etc/environment file. The thing is when I log out and log in again, I have to ...
3
votes
1answer
409 views

How to make etckeeper use the right value for git author & email with apt-get

I'm using git with etckeeper. When I use sudo git to commit changes in /etc/, GIT_AUTHOR_NAME & GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL from my env are used (as intended). When I use sudo apt-get and changes are ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

“Pointers” with $ Syntax in /etc/environment

Is it valid to have "pointers" in /etc/environment using $FOO syntax? Right now my /etc/environment looks like this: JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

vi/vim/view /etc/alternatives loop

I wanted to understand the difference between the executables vi and vim. which has led me to /usr/bin/, and there I've found the following symlinks: /usr/bin/vi -> /etc/alternatives/vi ...
2
votes
2answers
815 views

The system does not go down

/etc/init.d/.depend.stop My Ubuntu 12.04 The system shuts down normally not get error message can't not open / etc / init.d / .depend.stop no such file of directory See picture What can ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Configuring multiple mouse settings

I am a left-handed thinkpad user and have grown used to using the trackpoint in its default right-handed configuration. When I use my bluetooth mouse, however, I would like the buttons to have a ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What does the [DEFAULT] written in the beginning of some files indicate and mean?

I have seen this especially in /etc folder, which perhaps means it should be the default configuration? P.S.: The main reason behind asking this is, adding [DEFAULT] to the top of file renders all ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

How to reset config files to default, especially boot sequence

Is there a way to reset all ubuntu config files, a batch procedure?. No the local config files, I mean all /etc config files. I know how to do that one by one but that is a job for weeks or work.
2
votes
1answer
632 views

Ubuntu User Accounts messed up

I need to fix Ubuntu Accounts but somehow don't really see how it could be done. The problem is: files /etc/passwd and /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts where changed. /etc/passwd After ...
2
votes
2answers
187 views

How to physically separate partitions for User/Home access on demand?

I'm searching for months (if not years) now for a solution to the following problem: I wish to have a general setup based on the following: PC/Laptop/Notebook/Server with ... 1 (ONE) S-ATA ...
2
votes
1answer
459 views

unable to create `/etc/skel/.bash_logout.dpkg-new': No such file or directory

I can´t install any updates. I tried apt-get clean, apt-get install -f, dpkg --configure -a. Nothing helps. I even tried to create a file or a directory in /etc/skel - it cannot be done, even with ...
1
vote
1answer
719 views

What's the difference between the “group” and “group-” file?

I know what the /etc/group file is for, but I'm also seeing a /etc/group- file. What's the difference between the two? The same group names and ids appear in both files. Only the last column (users) ...
1
vote
2answers
106 views

what is difference between /etc/shadow and /etc/passwd

I think both files /etc/shadow and /etc/passwd are same? they just report some information about accounts.What is the difference betwwen them?
1
vote
3answers
1k views

/etc/profile permission denied

I'm running an Ubuntu 12.04 LTS partition and I've recently have had issues logging in. From the GUI login screen, when I enter my username and password, it takes me right back to the login screen. ...
1
vote
2answers
234 views

No files in /etc/skel/ ; Can't restore .bashrc

I recently messed up my .bashrc file, which I mentioned in this question: Problem with installing Android developer files on Eclipse - messed up something with .bashrc, and I can't find a way to ...
1
vote
2answers
239 views

How to make changes of config under /etc folder to take effect?

I'm a rookie in Ubuntu and recently trying to learn Ubuntu. Now I encountered a very serious issue that for some reasons I need to update the configuration file like httpd.conf, hosts.deny and others ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views

How to reset default permissions for /etc?

By mistake I have made permission changes for /etc. Now it's giving me the following error message: bash: /etc/bash.bashrc: Permission denied I have no name!@chandan-Inspiron-5520:~$ sudo ...
1
vote
1answer
148 views

how to recover when /etc has been deleted on ubuntu 12.04?

I have accidentally deleted /etc. Does anybody knows how to recover from such a situation ? At least I can use ssh while the server is in rescue mode (dedicated server from ovh.com). I could ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

sudo apt-get update error ubuntu 12.04

Hi I'm new in Linux and I need your help :) Every time when i type sudo apt-get update it shows: alphaog@alphaog-HP-Pavilion-DV7:~$ sudo apt-get update E: Type 'ain' is not known on line 3 in source ...
1
vote
1answer
200 views

recover /etc/apt/preferences.d

I’m new to Ubuntu but not so noob .. I learn fast and I have a dream to be a developer .. I break up with windows and jump into the world of Unix . So what I did is that I had the duplicate ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

How to understand configuration files syntax?

Now I know this is a little abstract but how does one know how do edit a config file for example /etc/systemd/logind.conf how do you know what syntax is allowed and what not?
1
vote
1answer
31 views

/etc/group - group on last line not usable? Is it a bug?

$ cat -net /etc/group | tail -n 3 67 vboxusers:x:127:hannu$ 68 nvidia-persistenced:x:128:$ 69 $ $ a) With the lines as shown I get the profiling (System Settings > Color > ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Localhost port aliased

I wanted to use /etc/hosts to define "aliases" for multiple services localhosted like: 127.0.0.1 localhost 127.0.0.1:8080 machin 127.0.0.1:8081 truc But it doesn't seem to work, surely because ...
1
vote
1answer
93 views

Change the color of the text that appears at the beginning of startup

I would like to know how to make the "OK" in "[ OK ]" green, like there is displayed at the startup of OpenSuse: Starting xxxxxxxxxx [ OK ] <- Green Color Starting xxxxxxxxxx [ OK ] <- ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

What is the use for /etc/default/* when daemonizing a process

I have some configuration files under /etc/default and one of them is for a service that should be started at boot so I changed the configuration file to say: START=yes But I have scripts in ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

How can I backup the whole system status (not documents)?

I want to backup my system status, like Installed Packeges What's on my sidebar Grub Settings Kernel... in order to restore it in case of system crash. I don't care about my document, music, ...
1
vote
0answers
58 views

What's the best way to resolve “read permission” error when including /etc in backup? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How do I open Deja Dup as root? Running Ubuntu 12.04 and using the built in Backup utility (Deja-dup) to back up /home and /etc every night. Some files in /etc fail ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

How can I prevent auto-mounting of a partition in fstab?

Previously, I prevented auto-mounting of a particular partition at boot by the following line in /etc/fstab UUID=<alphanumeric> /media/windowsHDD ntfs user,noauto 0 0 At some point in the ...
0
votes
3answers
93 views

How do I see what PPA or PPAs are installed or in use

Sometimes I install good guy PPAs because someone on askubuntu says to use add-apt-repository . Later I wonder, where have they gone? Where can I find a list of Personal Package Archives that are ...
0
votes
3answers
159 views

cannot block site through /etc/hosts

I'm trying to block site with configuring /etc/hosts file. sudo sh -c 'echo "0.0.0.0 http://youtube.com" >> /etc/hosts' but I still can access youtube from browser(s). even I changed the ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Why do I need administrative privileges to use chsh?

I was working on a Ubuntu system where I did not have administrative privileges, and I couldn't change shells (from tcsh to bash) using chsh. I solved the problem writing in the .tcshrc to open bash. ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Changing the permissions in root files without sudo from recovery

Hi I recently killed my etc folder by running: sudo chmod etc 417. Due to sudo being in that folder it cannot be accesed now, so I have to change the permissions back to the correct ones using the ...
0
votes
1answer
542 views

What's the difference between cat /etc/group and cat /etc/group- [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What's the difference between the “group” and “group-” file? I just changed a group name and noticed that cat /etc/group Includes the ...
0
votes
1answer
82 views

How to change hostname [duplicate]

I have updated my system's hostname in /etc/hostname file as master. I have also mapped my /etc/hosts file like <ip> master Still, when I type $ hostname, I get a different hostname. I ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

I can't make any form of editions in my etc folder

Every time I try to make an edition one that is required i keep getting access denied. I wanted to edit a text file I used notepad, access denied me from saving it. I used limbra, access denied me ...
0
votes
1answer
346 views

What is the purpose of /etc/default?

I've assumed /etc/default was a handy place to save the post-install/default state of configuration files so that when some poor sysadmin arrives at a new system she can quickly determine what has ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

/etc files keep reverting after changes

My problem is when I configure a file in /etc, for instance, I made changes , with sudo,in /etc/default/l2tp-ipsec-vpn-daemon well, after restarting I noticed the changes I made are not applied ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Using OverlayFS to enable writing on a read only /etc

Is it a terribly bad idea to create a union mount, using OverlayFS, on top of /etc? I'm aiming to set up a system whereby a read-only root filesystem is installed on an SD card, with writeable areas ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

The best way to create a root filesystem, split between read only and writable

My aim is to create a system where the main parts of the root filesystem are stored on a read-only SD card, with writeable parts located on an SSD set to rw. This is to be done with a view to keeping ...