Questions about files beneath `/etc`: How to handle them, how they are important, how to make backups, how to find important information.

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17
votes
1answer
6k views

What is etc/alternatives used for?

What does /etc/alternatives stand for? How and why is it used? I found gnome-tex-editor in /usr/bin which is linked as follows: /usr/bin/gnome-text-editor -> /etc/alternatives/gnome-text-editor ...
15
votes
1answer
6k views

What is the purpose of /etc/default?

I've assumed /etc/default was a handy place to save the post-install/default state of configuration files so that when some poor sysadmin arrives at a new system she can quickly determine what has ...
9
votes
1answer
6k views

How to run a script when suspending/resuming? - Sony VAIO Ubuntu 12.04

Question: How to assign a script to run when selecting the suspend option on the power menu? Context: I have a Sony VAIO laptop with an AMD Radeon graphics card. I would like to be able to ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there an application to manage config files in the /etc folder with version control software?

I want make version control for config files in Ubuntu server. But I found out it's not easy for simply "git" whole etc folder, because so many file doesn't need to track and some time system will ...
6
votes
3answers
6k views

Sound only works from left speaker?

After installing Ubuntu 13.04 x64, I realised that my sound wasn't working (only headphone showed up in settings). Following this guide, I manually added my Dell Studio 1740 audio hardware to: ...
5
votes
2answers
9k views

what is difference between /etc/shadow and /etc/passwd

I think both files /etc/shadow and /etc/passwd are same? they just report some information about accounts.What is the difference betwwen them?
5
votes
3answers
3k views

“Pointers” with $ Syntax in /etc/environment

Is it valid to have "pointers" in /etc/environment using $FOO syntax? Right now my /etc/environment looks like this: JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk ...
5
votes
1answer
164 views

Preventing Users/Groups from accessing certain Domains

I have created a Study account which I use when doing anything school related work. It's purpose is to remove the distractions of my normal account, such as social media and news websites. I know ...
5
votes
3answers
6k views

What are the standard file permissions for the /etc directory(file)

I kinda screwed up the /etc directory by running: sudo chmod 417 /etc Leaving me unable to use sudo: sudo: can't open /etc/sudoers: permission denied. sudo: no valid sudoers sources foundm ...
4
votes
1answer
228 views

Where to find more information about xxx.d folders?

I see various references to "custom" folders in the /etc folder, with names matching some config file, eg /etc/resolv.conf and appended with .d. Examples are resolv.conf.d or cron.d. Where can I ...
4
votes
1answer
167 views

Keeping /etc folder on a remote server

I have etckeeper with default configuration (bazaar as VCS). I want to keep this repository on the remote server (for example on Amazon EC2 or, if possible, on Dropbox/Box.net/Ubuntu One). I tried to ...
4
votes
1answer
802 views

Why do configuration folders have *.d in their name [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Many directories have a “.d” suffix/extension. What does it mean? Why do most of the folders in /etc/* end with *.d I am just curious to know, why folders ...
4
votes
0answers
68 views
+50

Using HID compliant mouse like device in Ubuntu

Aim: I have a whiteboard which emulates as mouse. Thus, when you click and drag on the whiteboard it should move the cursor. I want to make a whiteboard work in Ubuntu It works on windows. Device ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

What's the difference between the “group” and “group-” file?

I know what the /etc/group file is for, but I'm also seeing a /etc/group- file. What's the difference between the two? The same group names and ids appear in both files. Only the last column (users) ...
3
votes
2answers
40 views

Maintaining server-wide dot files in bash

Let's say I'm administering an Ubuntu setup with multiple users for my organization. We have a standard .bash_profile and .bashrc with aliases, prompt settings, PATH declarations, etc... that we want ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

What is the “-” at the end of some files?

I find a lot of the time that files in /etc end with a -, but have another version of the file without it at the end. So what does the - mean? Is it like a ~? Or does it serve a different purpose?
3
votes
1answer
136 views

Replace /etc after reinstallation

I reinstalled Ubuntu 12.04 after a corruption caused by a faulty operation (not much interesting but you can read about it). The old system had three partitions, one for boot, one for / and one for ...
3
votes
1answer
4k views

How to fix Xubuntu LightDM Theme after installing unity.

After successfully installing Xubuntu 12.04.1 on my laptop, I decided to install Unity. That went OK but then I realized there was no themes. So then I installed the themes and artwork, and got a ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

How to reset config files to default, especially boot sequence

Is there a way to reset all ubuntu config files, a batch procedure?. No the local config files, I mean all /etc config files. I know how to do that one by one but that is a job for weeks or work.
3
votes
1answer
3k views

How to define an environment variable systemwide with /etc/environment?

I am trying to set an environment variable system wide. Following the ubuntu site recommendations , I set it up to my /etc/environment file. The thing is when I log out and log in again, I have to ...
3
votes
1answer
712 views

How to make etckeeper use the right value for git author & email with apt-get

I'm using git with etckeeper. When I use sudo git to commit changes in /etc/, GIT_AUTHOR_NAME & GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL from my env are used (as intended). When I use sudo apt-get and changes are ...
2
votes
3answers
5k views

How to recover a deleted /etc/passwd file? [duplicate]

I deleted the /etc/passwd file and cannot login now. I don't know the root password and tried lots of passwords, but none of them worked. How can I fix this?
2
votes
2answers
909 views

After modifying /etc/hosts which service is needed to be restarted in ubuntu

After modifying "/etc/hosts" which service is needed to be restarted in ubuntu !
2
votes
3answers
10k views

/etc/profile permission denied

I'm running an Ubuntu 12.04 LTS partition and I've recently have had issues logging in. From the GUI login screen, when I enter my username and password, it takes me right back to the login screen. ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

vi/vim/view /etc/alternatives loop

I wanted to understand the difference between the executables vi and vim. which has led me to /usr/bin/, and there I've found the following symlinks: /usr/bin/vi -> /etc/alternatives/vi ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

recover /etc/apt/preferences.d

I’m new to Ubuntu but not so noob .. I learn fast and I have a dream to be a developer .. I break up with windows and jump into the world of Unix . So what I did is that I had the duplicate ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

The system does not go down

/etc/init.d/.depend.stop My Ubuntu 12.04 The system shuts down normally not get error message can't not open / etc / init.d / .depend.stop no such file of directory See picture What can ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Configuring multiple mouse settings

I am a left-handed thinkpad user and have grown used to using the trackpoint in its default right-handed configuration. When I use my bluetooth mouse, however, I would like the buttons to have a ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

What does the [DEFAULT] written in the beginning of some files indicate and mean?

I have seen this especially in /etc folder, which perhaps means it should be the default configuration? P.S.: The main reason behind asking this is, adding [DEFAULT] to the top of file renders all ...
2
votes
1answer
691 views

Ubuntu User Accounts messed up

I need to fix Ubuntu Accounts but somehow don't really see how it could be done. The problem is: files /etc/passwd and /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts where changed. /etc/passwd After ...
2
votes
2answers
196 views

How to physically separate partitions for User/Home access on demand?

I'm searching for months (if not years) now for a solution to the following problem: I wish to have a general setup based on the following: PC/Laptop/Notebook/Server with ... 1 (ONE) S-ATA ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Revert system fie premissions

I have mistakely changed the permission of the entire etc directory to 777. Now I'm getting frequent errors like ... is world writable! Is there a way to revert back to the default permission? ...
2
votes
1answer
732 views

unable to create `/etc/skel/.bash_logout.dpkg-new': No such file or directory

I can´t install any updates. I tried apt-get clean, apt-get install -f, dpkg --configure -a. Nothing helps. I even tried to create a file or a directory in /etc/skel - it cannot be done, even with ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

How can I prevent auto-mounting of a partition in fstab?

Previously, I prevented auto-mounting of a particular partition at boot by the following line in /etc/fstab UUID=<alphanumeric> /media/windowsHDD ntfs user,noauto 0 0 At some point in the ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Is it safe to init a Mercurial repository on /etc?

My company has an external server, mostly managed by a 3rd party. Sometimes they do configuration changes but 'forgot' to tell us. I am thinking of tracking all changes to /etc. Is it safe to do hg ...
1
vote
3answers
77 views

Moved /etc folder to another place

I moved /etc folder to another place. Now when i use sudo mv command it says: sudo: uid 1010 does not exist in the passwd file there's a solution for it? it happenned in my vps by ssh. Format isn't ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

/etc/localtime not a link

Rather fresh install of Ubuntu 14.10. Have installed Gnome Flahsback which I am currently using. Have updated Date/Time to show Day MM DD HH:MM:SS. That's about it. Due to another issue I checked ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Perrmision denied after /etc/profile while installing Java

I am trying to install Java. I have to reload my system wide PATH from /etc/profile by typing the following command: /etc/profile And then I get the error: bash: /etc/profile: permission denied ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

The best way to create a root filesystem, split between read only and writable

My aim is to create a system where the main parts of the root filesystem are stored on a read-only SD card, with writeable parts located on an SSD set to rw. This is to be done with a view to keeping ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

No files in /etc/skel/ ; Can't restore .bashrc

I recently messed up my .bashrc file, which I mentioned in this question: Problem with installing Android developer files on Eclipse - messed up something with .bashrc, and I can't find a way to ...
1
vote
2answers
673 views

How to make changes of config under /etc folder to take effect?

I'm a rookie in Ubuntu and recently trying to learn Ubuntu. Now I encountered a very serious issue that for some reasons I need to update the configuration file like httpd.conf, hosts.deny and others ...
1
vote
3answers
7k views

How to reset default permissions for /etc?

By mistake I have made permission changes for /etc. Now it's giving me the following error message: bash: /etc/bash.bashrc: Permission denied I have no name!@chandan-Inspiron-5520:~$ sudo ...
1
vote
1answer
221 views

how to recover when /etc has been deleted on ubuntu 12.04?

I have accidentally deleted /etc. Does anybody knows how to recover from such a situation ? At least I can use ssh while the server is in rescue mode (dedicated server from ovh.com). I could ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

sudo apt-get update error ubuntu 12.04

Hi I'm new in Linux and I need your help :) Every time when i type sudo apt-get update it shows: alphaog@alphaog-HP-Pavilion-DV7:~$ sudo apt-get update E: Type 'ain' is not known on line 3 in source ...
1
vote
1answer
206 views

Event.d not there

Using ubuntu server 14.04.2 I'm trying to get the git daemon on my server it tells me to create an upstart script at /etc/event.d/local-git-daemon. However it seems there is no event.d in /etc. ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Sensible/correct way to edit the files provided by base-files package?

I understand the package base-files provides the Debian base system miscellaneous files such as /etc/issue, /etc/lsb-release (in the specific case of Ubuntu) or /etc/os-release. I'd like to know ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Language changed to German without doing anything

My system language was English but suddenly switched to German. The keyboard layout is Swiss German but until now it worked fine. Attention! Only some programs are now in German. (e.g. kate and ...
1
vote
2answers
74 views

Number pair prefix to config files

I have noticed some config files having a prefix. E.g. Inside my /etc/php5/cli/conf.d: 05-opcache.ini 10-pdo.ini 20-curl.ini ... Could someone explain this? I am thinking something along the ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

How to understand configuration files syntax?

Now I know this is a little abstract but how does one know how do edit a config file for example /etc/systemd/logind.conf how do you know what syntax is allowed and what not?
1
vote
1answer
74 views

/etc/group - group on last line not usable? Is it a bug?

$ cat -net /etc/group | tail -n 3 67 vboxusers:x:127:hannu$ 68 nvidia-persistenced:x:128:$ 69 $ $ a) With the lines as shown I get the profiling (System Settings > Color > ...