Questions about files beneath `/etc`: How to handle them, how they are important, how to make backups, how to find important information.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

13
votes
1answer
4k views

What is etc/alternatives used for?

What does /etc/alternatives stand for? How and why is it used? I found gnome-tex-editor in /usr/bin which is linked as follows: /usr/bin/gnome-text-editor -> /etc/alternatives/gnome-text-editor ...
7
votes
1answer
4k views

How to run a script when suspending/resuming? - Sony VAIO Ubuntu 12.04

Question: How to assign a script to run when selecting the suspend option on the power menu? Context: I have a Sony VAIO laptop with an AMD Radeon graphics card. I would like to be able to ...
7
votes
2answers
767 views

Is there an application to manage config files in the /etc folder with version control software?

I want make version control for config files in Ubuntu server. But I found out it's not easy for simply "git" whole etc folder, because so many file doesn't need to track and some time system will ...
7
votes
1answer
3k views

What is the purpose of /etc/default?

I've assumed /etc/default was a handy place to save the post-install/default state of configuration files so that when some poor sysadmin arrives at a new system she can quickly determine what has ...
5
votes
3answers
4k views

Sound only works from left speaker?

After installing Ubuntu 13.04 x64, I realised that my sound wasn't working (only headphone showed up in settings). Following this guide, I manually added my Dell Studio 1740 audio hardware to: ...
5
votes
1answer
157 views

Preventing Users/Groups from accessing certain Domains

I have created a Study account which I use when doing anything school related work. It's purpose is to remove the distractions of my normal account, such as social media and news websites. I know ...
4
votes
1answer
141 views

Keeping /etc folder on a remote server

I have etckeeper with default configuration (bazaar as VCS). I want to keep this repository on the remote server (for example on Amazon EC2 or, if possible, on Dropbox/Box.net/Ubuntu One). I tried to ...
4
votes
3answers
4k views

What are the standard file permissions for the /etc directory(file)

I kinda screwed up the /etc directory by running: sudo chmod 417 /etc Leaving me unable to use sudo: sudo: can't open /etc/sudoers: permission denied. sudo: no valid sudoers sources foundm ...
4
votes
1answer
624 views

Why do configuration folders have *.d in their name [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Many directories have a “.d” suffix/extension. What does it mean? Why do most of the folders in /etc/* end with *.d I am just curious to know, why folders ...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

what is difference between /etc/shadow and /etc/passwd

I think both files /etc/shadow and /etc/passwd are same? they just report some information about accounts.What is the difference betwwen them?
3
votes
3answers
2k views

“Pointers” with $ Syntax in /etc/environment

Is it valid to have "pointers" in /etc/environment using $FOO syntax? Right now my /etc/environment looks like this: JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

What's the difference between the “group” and “group-” file?

I know what the /etc/group file is for, but I'm also seeing a /etc/group- file. What's the difference between the two? The same group names and ids appear in both files. Only the last column (users) ...
3
votes
2answers
26 views

Maintaining server-wide dot files in bash

Let's say I'm administering an Ubuntu setup with multiple users for my organization. We have a standard .bash_profile and .bashrc with aliases, prompt settings, PATH declarations, etc... that we want ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

What is the “-” at the end of some files?

I find a lot of the time that files in /etc end with a -, but have another version of the file without it at the end. So what does the - mean? Is it like a ~? Or does it serve a different purpose?
3
votes
1answer
134 views

Replace /etc after reinstallation

I reinstalled Ubuntu 12.04 after a corruption caused by a faulty operation (not much interesting but you can read about it). The old system had three partitions, one for boot, one for / and one for ...
3
votes
1answer
4k views

How to fix Xubuntu LightDM Theme after installing unity.

After successfully installing Xubuntu 12.04.1 on my laptop, I decided to install Unity. That went OK but then I realized there was no themes. So then I installed the themes and artwork, and got a ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

How to reset config files to default, especially boot sequence

Is there a way to reset all ubuntu config files, a batch procedure?. No the local config files, I mean all /etc config files. I know how to do that one by one but that is a job for weeks or work.
3
votes
1answer
3k views

How to define an environment variable systemwide with /etc/environment?

I am trying to set an environment variable system wide. Following the ubuntu site recommendations , I set it up to my /etc/environment file. The thing is when I log out and log in again, I have to ...
3
votes
1answer
608 views

How to make etckeeper use the right value for git author & email with apt-get

I'm using git with etckeeper. When I use sudo git to commit changes in /etc/, GIT_AUTHOR_NAME & GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL from my env are used (as intended). When I use sudo apt-get and changes are ...
2
votes
3answers
3k views

How to recover a deleted /etc/passwd file? [duplicate]

I deleted the /etc/passwd file and cannot login now. I don't know the root password and tried lots of passwords, but none of them worked. How can I fix this?
2
votes
3answers
6k views

/etc/profile permission denied

I'm running an Ubuntu 12.04 LTS partition and I've recently have had issues logging in. From the GUI login screen, when I enter my username and password, it takes me right back to the login screen. ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

vi/vim/view /etc/alternatives loop

I wanted to understand the difference between the executables vi and vim. which has led me to /usr/bin/, and there I've found the following symlinks: /usr/bin/vi -> /etc/alternatives/vi ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

The system does not go down

/etc/init.d/.depend.stop My Ubuntu 12.04 The system shuts down normally not get error message can't not open / etc / init.d / .depend.stop no such file of directory See picture What can ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Configuring multiple mouse settings

I am a left-handed thinkpad user and have grown used to using the trackpoint in its default right-handed configuration. When I use my bluetooth mouse, however, I would like the buttons to have a ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

What does the [DEFAULT] written in the beginning of some files indicate and mean?

I have seen this especially in /etc folder, which perhaps means it should be the default configuration? P.S.: The main reason behind asking this is, adding [DEFAULT] to the top of file renders all ...
2
votes
1answer
675 views

Ubuntu User Accounts messed up

I need to fix Ubuntu Accounts but somehow don't really see how it could be done. The problem is: files /etc/passwd and /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts where changed. /etc/passwd After ...
2
votes
2answers
194 views

How to physically separate partitions for User/Home access on demand?

I'm searching for months (if not years) now for a solution to the following problem: I wish to have a general setup based on the following: PC/Laptop/Notebook/Server with ... 1 (ONE) S-ATA ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Revert system fie premissions

I have mistakely changed the permission of the entire etc directory to 777. Now I'm getting frequent errors like ... is world writable! Is there a way to revert back to the default permission? ...
2
votes
1answer
640 views

unable to create `/etc/skel/.bash_logout.dpkg-new': No such file or directory

I can´t install any updates. I tried apt-get clean, apt-get install -f, dpkg --configure -a. Nothing helps. I even tried to create a file or a directory in /etc/skel - it cannot be done, even with ...
1
vote
2answers
29 views

After modifying /etc/hosts which service is needed to be restarted in ubuntu

After modifying "/etc/hosts" which service is needed to be restarted in ubuntu !
1
vote
1answer
714 views

Perrmision denied after /etc/profile while installing Java

I am trying to install Java. I have to reload my system wide PATH from /etc/profile by typing the following command: /etc/profile And then I get the error: bash: /etc/profile: permission denied ...
1
vote
2answers
427 views

/etc/localtime not a link

Rather fresh install of Ubuntu 14.10. Have installed Gnome Flahsback which I am currently using. Have updated Date/Time to show Day MM DD HH:MM:SS. That's about it. Due to another issue I checked ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

The best way to create a root filesystem, split between read only and writable

My aim is to create a system where the main parts of the root filesystem are stored on a read-only SD card, with writeable parts located on an SSD set to rw. This is to be done with a view to keeping ...
1
vote
2answers
746 views

No files in /etc/skel/ ; Can't restore .bashrc

I recently messed up my .bashrc file, which I mentioned in this question: Problem with installing Android developer files on Eclipse - messed up something with .bashrc, and I can't find a way to ...
1
vote
2answers
538 views

How to make changes of config under /etc folder to take effect?

I'm a rookie in Ubuntu and recently trying to learn Ubuntu. Now I encountered a very serious issue that for some reasons I need to update the configuration file like httpd.conf, hosts.deny and others ...
1
vote
3answers
5k views

How to reset default permissions for /etc?

By mistake I have made permission changes for /etc. Now it's giving me the following error message: bash: /etc/bash.bashrc: Permission denied I have no name!@chandan-Inspiron-5520:~$ sudo ...
1
vote
1answer
183 views

how to recover when /etc has been deleted on ubuntu 12.04?

I have accidentally deleted /etc. Does anybody knows how to recover from such a situation ? At least I can use ssh while the server is in rescue mode (dedicated server from ovh.com). I could ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

sudo apt-get update error ubuntu 12.04

Hi I'm new in Linux and I need your help :) Every time when i type sudo apt-get update it shows: alphaog@alphaog-HP-Pavilion-DV7:~$ sudo apt-get update E: Type 'ain' is not known on line 3 in source ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Event.d not there

Using ubuntu server 14.04.2 I'm trying to get the git daemon on my server it tells me to create an upstart script at /etc/event.d/local-git-daemon. However it seems there is no event.d in /etc. ...
1
vote
1answer
865 views

recover /etc/apt/preferences.d

I’m new to Ubuntu but not so noob .. I learn fast and I have a dream to be a developer .. I break up with windows and jump into the world of Unix . So what I did is that I had the duplicate ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Sensible/correct way to edit the files provided by base-files package?

I understand the package base-files provides the Debian base system miscellaneous files such as /etc/issue, /etc/lsb-release (in the specific case of Ubuntu) or /etc/os-release. I'd like to know ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

Number pair prefix to config files

I have noticed some config files having a prefix. E.g. Inside my /etc/php5/cli/conf.d: 05-opcache.ini 10-pdo.ini 20-curl.ini ... Could someone explain this? I am thinking something along the ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

How to understand configuration files syntax?

Now I know this is a little abstract but how does one know how do edit a config file for example /etc/systemd/logind.conf how do you know what syntax is allowed and what not?
1
vote
1answer
53 views

/etc/group - group on last line not usable? Is it a bug?

$ cat -net /etc/group | tail -n 3 67 vboxusers:x:127:hannu$ 68 nvidia-persistenced:x:128:$ 69 $ $ a) With the lines as shown I get the profiling (System Settings > Color > ...
1
vote
0answers
120 views

Localhost port aliased

I wanted to use /etc/hosts to define "aliases" for multiple services localhosted like: 127.0.0.1 localhost 127.0.0.1:8080 machin 127.0.0.1:8081 truc But it doesn't seem to work, surely because ...
1
vote
1answer
133 views

Change the color of the text that appears at the beginning of startup

I would like to know how to make the "OK" in "[ OK ]" green, like there is displayed at the startup of OpenSuse: Starting xxxxxxxxxx [ OK ] <- Green Color Starting xxxxxxxxxx [ OK ] <- ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

How can I backup the whole system status (not documents)?

I want to backup my system status, like Installed Packeges What's on my sidebar Grub Settings Kernel... in order to restore it in case of system crash. I don't care about my document, music, ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

What's the best way to resolve “read permission” error when including /etc in backup? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How do I open Deja Dup as root? Running Ubuntu 12.04 and using the built in Backup utility (Deja-dup) to back up /home and /etc every night. Some files in /etc fail ...
1
vote
1answer
535 views

How can I prevent auto-mounting of a partition in fstab?

Previously, I prevented auto-mounting of a particular partition at boot by the following line in /etc/fstab UUID=<alphanumeric> /media/windowsHDD ntfs user,noauto 0 0 At some point in the ...
0
votes
3answers
157 views

How do I see what PPA or PPAs are installed or in use

Sometimes I install good guy PPAs because someone on askubuntu says to use add-apt-repository . Later I wonder, where have they gone? Where can I find a list of Personal Package Archives that are ...