Bash is the shell used in Ubuntu's command-line interface.

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33
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10answers
215k views

How do I run .sh files in Terminal?

Whenever I open a .sh file, it opens it in gedit instead of the terminal. I can't find any option similar to Right Click → Open With → Other Application... → Terminal. How do I open this file in the ...
81
votes
7answers
148k views

How do I create a permanent Bash alias?

I would like to create an alias to rm command in order to have a confirmation message after executing this command. So I am creating an alias like this alias rm='rm -i'. But as far as I know this is a ...
11
votes
6answers
8k views

How can I run this sh script without typing the full path?

I'm still very new to Ubuntu. I'm using 12.04, and I'd like to know if there is a way to run this program/shell script without typing: /opt/idea/bin/idea.sh It's kinda tedious and I'm quite lazy. ...
128
votes
5answers
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What is the CVE-2014-6271 bash vulnerability (Shellshock) and how do I fix it?

Recently, there have been news going around regarding "CVE-2014-6271" (See USN-2362-1), which is a vulnerability in Bash. How do I know if I am affected by this, how can I fix it, and why should I ...
53
votes
5answers
87k views

Running programs in the background from terminal

How do I run a program in the background of a shell, with the ability to close the shell while leaving the program running? Lets say my UI is having problems or for some reason, I need to boot up a ...
38
votes
9answers
29k views

How do I restrict my kids' computing time?

Access to our computer (not only to the internet) needs to be restricted for the accounts of my kids (7, 8) until they are old enough to manage this by themselves. Until then we need to be able to ...
15
votes
8answers
31k views

How do I rebuild a corrupt dpkg status file?

Whenever I type sudo apt-get remove and then press the Tab key for auto-completion I get the following message: grep-status: /var/lib/dpkg/status:15945: expected a colon . I don't see anything ...
19
votes
6answers
11k views

Differences between doublequotes “ ”, singlequotes ' ' and backticks ´ ´ on commandline?

I often see tutorials on the web or posts on this site which make heavy use of the following characters at the command line. Often it seems that they are used for pretty similar purposes. What are the ...
62
votes
4answers
84k views

Why ~/.bash_profile is not getting sourced when opening a terminal?

Problem I have an Ubuntu 11.04 Virtual Machine and I wanted to set up my Java development environment. I did as follows sudo apt-get install openjdk-6-jdk Added the following entries to ...
44
votes
3answers
20k views

Bash history search, partial + up-arrow

I have searched, but not found anything on this. I am looking for a functionality in bash, using a terminal. Way back when, I had a user on a debian system, and a friend set me up with a convenient ...
75
votes
9answers
14k views

How can I tell what date Ubuntu was installed?

is there a command which will output the date that ubuntu (or any distribution) was installed?
46
votes
1answer
65k views

'sudo su -' vs 'sudo -i' vs 'sudo /bin/bash' - when does it matter which is used, or does it matter at all?

When I'm doing something that requires root be typed in dozens of times in a row, I prefer to switch my session to a root session. In the various tutorials and instructions I have used on the ...
33
votes
3answers
27k views

How can I shorten my command line (bash) prompt?

Currently it is: michael@Castle2012-Ubuntu-laptop01:~/Dropnot/webs/rails_v3/linker/spec/controllers$ Outside of renaming my machine and directory structure... How could I make it be something ...
49
votes
3answers
4k views

Is #!/bin/sh read by the interpreter?

In bash or sh, I guess anything which starts with # is a comment. But in bash scripts we write: #!/bin/bash And in Python scripts, there is: #!/bin/python Does this mean that # by itself is a ...
0
votes
2answers
651 views

UEFI machine doesn't boot Ubuntu through NVRAM bootcatalog. How to fix?

An answer posted here should: Avoid to require the user to download and install additional packages or PPAs. Be as quick and simple as possbile. (I tried boot-repair and it didn't ...
12
votes
5answers
12k views

trim the terminal command prompt working directory

When using the terminal in a deep folder structure sometimes the prompt can take up most of the line. Is there any way in which I can trim the working directory? I know I can do PS1="\W >" to only ...
2
votes
1answer
6k views

Run simple bash script to start applications at login

I want to run a simple bash script automatically when I log in. For example #!/bin/bash echo "start spotify" gnome-terminal -e spotify --title spotify When I run this command, one gnome-terminal ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How can I capture text from a specific terminal and redirect it to a log file while simultaneously working? [duplicate]

I viewed this question to redirect text to file while displaying the output. My question is how can I redirect it while working AND without constant | tee command. My plan is to use this question to ...
66
votes
4answers
34k views

Hide current working directory in terminal

As a default, the terminal prompt shows something like: user@system:/folder1/folder2/folder3/folder4$ the deeper you go into the filesystem, the less space is left for typing in commands. Can I ...
75
votes
8answers
175k views

How to clear bash history completely?

I want to clear all before command from history of my server. I use history -c it seems all things are cleared but when I ssh to the server,all commands are still there. How can I clear them ...
25
votes
1answer
296k views

How to copy files via terminal?

I have read about copying files with terminal but these examples will help me a lot. So here is what I want to do: Examples: I have a file in /home/levan/kdenlive untitelds.mpg and I want to copy ...
34
votes
2answers
21k views

How can I tell if my system was booted as EFI/UEFI or BIOS?

How do I determine whether a particular running Ubuntu system was booted using EFI/UEFI, or BIOS?
9
votes
1answer
2k views

How to run a command or script at screen lock/unlock?

I am looking for a way to store lock/unlock screen times. A=$(date) echo $A >> $HOME/time_xprofile What did I try: $HOME/.bashrc $HOME/.bash_logout $HOME/.bash_prompt $HOME/.xprofile Then ...
55
votes
5answers
80k views

How to list all variables names and their current values?

Including not only $HOME, $PWD etc but any other you have defined.
26
votes
4answers
11k views

How to avoid duplicate entries in .bash_history

The same command is listed in my history again and again. How can I avoid this? I know it's possible via HISTCONTROL but I haven't found the right way.
16
votes
2answers
4k views

Can I enable bash-completion for the new apt command?

The new apt command, present in Ubuntu since 14.04, seems to be a really useful intersection of functionality between apt-get and apt-cache but the current version of bash-completion doesn't know ...
29
votes
2answers
121k views

How to use variables in 'sed' command?

I try the fallowing code and it does nothing var1=QQ sed -i 's/$var1/ZZ/g' $file However this code replaces QQ with ZZ sed -i 's/QQ/ZZ/g' $file How to use variables in sed?
22
votes
3answers
29k views

How do I modify my PATH so that the changes are available in every Terminal session

I want to add a directory to search my search path. I know I have to modify the $PATH environment variable. However, I want the change to be permanent, so that it is always in effect, for every ...
33
votes
1answer
81k views

Command to append line to a text file without opening an editor

Assuming i have a line that i want to add to a file without opening an editor. How could i append this line alias list='ls -cl --group-directories-first' to this file config.fish
17
votes
6answers
25k views

Home directory not being created

I am trying to understand system administration on Ubuntu. So, as an example, I create a dummy user using sudo useradd -d /home/linda linda and passwd to create the password. I check that an entry ...
9
votes
1answer
821 views

Sequence of scripts sourced upon login

I would like to concentrate all my login config in my ~/.bash_profile. There was a ~/.bashrc there by default but I replaced it with a ~/.bash_profile. However, when I log in, something before my ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Where can I find a complete reference for the $PS1 variable?

The default PS1 variable on my machine (Kubuntu 13.10) is this: \[\e]0;\u@\h: \w\a\]${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h:\w\$ I'm looking for a reference for how the $PS1 variable works that, at ...
13
votes
5answers
18k views

How do I insert a line at the top of a text file using the command line?

I want to insert text at the top of an already existing file. How can I achieve this. I tried echo and tee but was not successful. I was trying to insert repo line at the top of sources.list file ...
54
votes
3answers
113k views

What is difference between #!/bin/sh and #!/bin/bash?

if I write, #!/bin/bash echo "foo" or #!/bin/sh echo "foo" both yields same. I have seen some scripts starting with #!/bin/sh or #!/bin/bash. Is there any difference between them?
37
votes
2answers
21k views

What are login and non-login shells?

It is said that settings for non login shell to go into .bashrc file and login shell settings to go into .profile file. What is really meant by login and non-login shells? Please explain without ...
35
votes
11answers
114k views

How can I create a select menu in a shell script?

I'm creating a simple bash script and I want to create a select menu in it, like this: ./script echo "Choose your option:" 1) Option 1 2) Option 2 3) Option 3 4) Quit And according to ...
22
votes
6answers
8k views

How can I create an alias for cd and ls?

I frequently run the ls command after running the cd command. How can I create an alias (like cs) for this operation?
15
votes
4answers
36k views

How do I clean or disable the memory cache?

After the system starts, in a few minutes my memory cache fills up and it starts using the swap. Here's a screenshot of /proc/meminfo. However, if I can disable this process / clean the cache once ...
17
votes
5answers
23k views

How do I use wget/curl to download from a site I am logged into?

Some parts of wikipedia appear differently when you're logged in. I would like to wget user pages so they would appear as if I was logged in. Is there a way I can wget user pages like this ...
13
votes
5answers
11k views

Search for duplicate file names within folder hierarchy?

I have a folder called img, this folder has many levels of sub-folders, all of which containing images. I am going to import them into an image server. Normally images (or any files) can have the ...
25
votes
1answer
12k views

Scripts in /etc/profile.d Being Ignored?

I'm new to Ubuntu. I'm running 13.10 Desktop. I wanted to set some system wide aliases and a custom prompt for bash. I found this article: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EnvironmentVariables ...
15
votes
4answers
2k views

How (and where) can one change 'user@host $:' pattern in gnome-terminal?

When I start terminal in Ubuntu, I see: ilya@HOST:~$ I need to add a timestamp to this, something like: 2011-10-09T09:32:00 ilya@HOST:~$ How can I configure this?
7
votes
3answers
19k views

How to execute sudo commands with Expect & send commands in bash script?

Can any body let me know how to execute sudo commands with expect. I tried the following but this is not working. Can anyone give me suggestion please? set login "sasuke" set addr "hostname" set pw ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

Script to Mute an Application

My goal is to be able to mute the Spotify application, not the entire system. Using the command: ps -C spotify -o pid= I am able to find the process ID of Spotify, in this case the ID is "22981". With ...
15
votes
3answers
39k views

What is the difference between 'su -' , 'sudo bash' and 'sudo sh'?

I would like to know what is the difference between su - sudo bash sudo sh I cannot login as root while doing su - because I do not have the root password - I mean I have my user password with ...
1
vote
4answers
1k views

Can't run a shell script [duplicate]

So I have this script: #!/bin/bash # Flips the screen (hopefully) syntax_error=0 orientation=0 current_orientation="$(xrandr -q --verbose | grep 'connected' | egrep -o '\) ...
0
votes
2answers
5k views

Bash script with execution permissions won't run with dbl click

I have a bash script that has permission to execute, but when I double click it in nautilus it wont execute, instead it opens its text in gedit. In properties it says open with: gedit, and that ...
62
votes
5answers
48k views

Which one is better: using ; or && to execute multiple commands in one line?

In tutorials and how-to's I often see commands combined. For instance, sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install pyrenamer There seem to be four possible connectors: &, &&, || ...
51
votes
2answers
18k views

What is the difference between “source” and “.” in bash?

As the question says, what is the difference between executing a script with source command and with . , i.e.: source /some/script and . /some/script
32
votes
3answers
36k views

apt-get autocomplete package name is broken

At some moment apt-get install autocomplete was broken It was very useful to me to see packages name with Tab press How to repair this autocomplete?