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I'm running 11.10 and did a backup with the default program titled "Backup" (Deja Dup).

How can I know that it backed up my files correctly / completely?

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Update Deja-dup to 24.x or latest release.

In later version of 23.x they have added integrity check feature.

Have a look this link.

After every backup, we make a small check to confirm we can restore a test file. And every two months, we make a more intensive check.

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How to check which version (of deja-dup) is installed ? – nutty about natty May 9 '13 at 14:41
@nutty about natty deja-dup --version – Akash Shende May 9 '13 at 14:55

Restore the data, either in a VM or test home directory.

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as bodhi.zazen explained, the best way would be to restore the backup on a test environment. Then, I suggest you to store somekind of checksum database of your backups after the restoration test

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Actually, you should create the checksum database 'before' restoring. If restoring succeeds, you know your checksum file is valid. This is for the case your backup actually breaks while or after restoring. Create md5 checksums recursively with md5deep -r -l DIR > DIR.md5sum. Check all .md5sum files of a directory with md5sum -c --quiet *.md5sum. – sulai Feb 7 at 22:21

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