There are lots of possibilities that can cause to this kind of problem. It mainly depends on how you installed the operating system (Linux in this case). Did you install it side-by-side with Windows? OR Did you do some sort of altering the partition table that was there before you install Linux.
I highly suspect that you have done some sort of altering (i.e. shrinking or/and creating new partition etc.) to the partition table and hence to the partition where Windows was installed. As result of that your NTFS partition (Windows partition) might have corrupted. You can try to repair your NTFS partition but, first try these things.
Assuming you're using later version of Debian, Ubuntu or their derived distribution and hence you have Grub 2 installed in you system:
run in terminal
sudo update-grub2 enter your sudo password when prompted. See whether is there any error or abnormal output. (I have a dual boot system with Windows 7. So typical output would be something as shown below)
Assuming things went well, reboot the system and try to load Windows 7. If you get the previous message (the one you have mentioned in the question) then, you have to go the next step, repairing your Windows partition.
If you can mount your NTFS partition it is better (and important) to backup any important data in that partition.
Now install some packages (if they are not already in your system). Type in terminal
sudo apt-get install ntfsprogs. Try to repair / resize your NTFS partition. Commands you need to type depends on what you wanna achieve at the end. So, before you do any thing, please go through the man pages of
If nothing work for you then, you need to reinstall Windows and repair Grub boot loader (since Windows boot loader overwrites Grub (MBR)) if you want to login to Linux as well.
Here are some good links regarding Dual Boot Windows 7 with Ubuntu. Hope these might help you :)