You can't. And in most cases, you shouldn't install a bare source tarball unless there's absolutely no other way. Use a package from Ubuntu, or build a source package from Debian, or anything else. You really want to use Debianized source.
However, you can build/modify a source package:
apt-get source some-package
Then, after making any changes, build a binary package:
Now, you have a .deb package you can install.
EDIT: I belatedly remembered
checkinstall. You can use
checkinstall to replace the
make install step. You'll get something that looks very much like your original question asked for, although the last time I worked with
checkinstall (years ago) it was far from perfect. The other options I mentioned are better than this one.