As far as I know there is no PDF reader on Linux that offers this capability as a part of its inbuilt toolset. However, you can always use an external desktop search engine such as Recoll to gain an overview of search term instances within a PDF document.
Recoll's newest releases come with a nifty snippet window that does exactly what you're looking for:
And, what's more, clicking on one of the page numbers will immediately direct you to the relevant part of the document and pass the search term to the document viewer.
Note: this will only work if you use Recoll coupled with a PDF viewer that is capable of being passed page numbers and search terms from the command line. Ubuntu's default PDF viewer, evince, can do that. Others, such as KDE's Okular can't at the moment.