Since you know you like Ubuntu 10.04 LTS, and that is still supported, it seems like it would make the most sense for you to just install that.
(Downgrading is not supported, so to go to 10.04 LTS, you'll have to do a fresh install. Since you have another OS--Windows, in this case--on the same machine, which I presume you want to keep, you should use GParted on the Ubuntu 10.04 LTS live CD--or any Ubuntu live CD, but you'll be using the 10.04 LTS live CD anyway if you're installing that version--to remove the installed Ubuntu 11.10 system's partitions, while keeping the Windows partition(s). That is, of course, assuming that you installing Ubuntu 11.10 alongside Windows, rather than inside it with Wubi. If you installed inside Windows with Wubi, then you should use Add/Remove Programs to remove it.)
If the Ubuntu 10.04 LTS install CD did not boot at all, that is likely due to a bad .iso image or a bad disc (or a corrupted USB flash drive, if you're trying to boot from one of those rather than a CD or DVD).
To test for a bad .iso image (used to make the disc or flash drive), see https://help.ubuntu.com/community/HowToMD5SUM. To test the disc itself, you want https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BootOptions#Ubuntu_CD_Advanced_Welcome_Page_Options (select "Check disc for defects").
If the .iso image has a bad MD5 sum, you'll have to redownload it, test the newly downloaded image, and if that checks out, burn a new CD/DVD or write the new image to the USB flash drive. If the .iso image checks out but the disc or flash drive does not, then you'll have to burn a new disc or write the image to the flash drive again. If burning a disc, try burning it as slowly as possible, as that reduces the chance of errors. You should also make sure you are burning it to the CD/DVD or writing it to the USB flash drive using a correct procedure (click "Show me how" in Step 2 on the download page).