Are there any similar applications for Ubuntu?
There is a new (actually one year old) terminal emulator project that does exactly what you want: cool-retro-term (and I agree, it's really cool!).
Ubuntu users can install it from this ppa:
From sil's comment:
Happily, the apple2 screensaver works fine: install the xscreensaver-data-extra package and then run as: /usr/lib/xscreensaver/apple2 -text -fast -program bash
(I copied this into a separate answer because being just a comment I almost miss it. It's just too amazing that this existed for such a long time and very little people knew about it.)