I have the Ubuntu one app for droid and I am running Ubuntu 10.04 lts. I can take a picture on my phone and sync it to ubuntu one. it has a special folder for my mobile pictures and documents. I can see these folders and files in the droid app and in the web interface. I can not see them in the regular ubuntu one folder on my desktop. I can add files from my desk top to the folder and they sync. I just can't see the folders and files from the phone. I have searched all my folders.
You might need a later version of Ubuntu to make this work. I see you are on 10.04LTS. Here is how to do it in 11.04.
Make sure you have Ubuntu One set to sync that folder locally. Start the client and choose 'Cloud Folders' at the top, then tick the 'Sync locally' box.