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UPDATE 1

Output of sudo fdisk -l

ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00050e46

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1        9729    78140139    7  HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda2            9729       14594    39079937    5  Extended
/dev/sda5            9729       14388    37430272   83  Linux
/dev/sda6           14389       14594     1648640   82  Linux swap / Solaris
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ 

ORIGINAL QUESTION

I'm getting the following message when I try to boot up my Ubuntu 10.04 install:

mount: mounting /dev on /root/dev failed: No such file or directory
mount: mounting /sys on /root/sys failed: No such file or directory
mount: mounting /proc on /root/proc failed: No such file or directory
Target filesystem doesn't have  /sbin/init.
No init found.  Try passing init= bootarg

This happened after a power failure.

I am currently using the same computer but booted from the Ubuntu 10.04 LiveCD.

How do I recover my system?

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Are you able to browse files on that partition from the LiveCD? –  arrange Sep 7 '11 at 18:40
    
@fossfreedom, I have added the requested output in the original question. –  oshirowanen Sep 7 '11 at 18:54
    
@arrange, yes, I can browse the files on my HDD from the LiveCD. –  oshirowanen Sep 7 '11 at 18:54
    
First I would check the filesystem, you can use GParted or Disk Utility. –  arrange Sep 7 '11 at 18:59

4 Answers 4

up vote 2 down vote accepted

Seeing your fstab I think you have windows in your sda1, im I wrong? The problem is sometimes after a power outage the ntfs gets damaged. If your boot sda1 device were Linux and the ntfs were in sda2, fdsk would repair it automatically during boot. But since the boot is in the same damaged device, it can't.

If you have windows, try booting into windows, reach the desktop, and restart it properly. Next time you boot the sda1 would be corrected and linux should boot normally.

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Use boot-repair as suggested by fossfreedom.

Choose "Advanced Options" → include "filesystem recovery" and it should work like a charm. I need a good celebration for having my computer recovered.

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It looks like your initramfs can't mount your root partition (/dev/sda5). Open a terminal and try to check your root partition:

sudo fsck.ext4 /dev/sda5

If this doesn't help, try to install your bootloader again (from your Live CD):

sudo mount /dev/sda5 /mnt
sudo grub-install --root-directory=/mnt /dev/sda
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Boot Repair

If you are confident that you have a good backup, I would try Boot-Repair

enter image description here

You can "install it" on your LiveCD - Instructions in the link.

Try the "Recommended Repair" option. If this doesn't work then try the second method and post the results into your Question.

share|improve this answer
    
Do you happen to know what the Recommended repair actually does? I can't find it anywhere. It seems to me that it - fsck partitions; - reinstalls grub package on all linux partitions; - possibly restores a MBR backup which I guess only a few people have. –  arrange Sep 7 '11 at 20:24

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