I have created a benchmark tool to test different settings.
The test may take long time and remove your data, so please use with care.

badblocks_benchmark.sh:

```
#!/bin/bash
blocks=4194304 # 2^22, must be dividable by 2^8 (max i) = 256
block_size=512
result=""
for i in {1..8}
do
block_count=1
for j in {1..18}
do
echo -n "Benchmark with block count: $block_count, block size: $block_size: "
execution_time=`/usr/bin/time 2>&1 -f "%Es" badblocks >/dev/null -w -b $block_size -c $block_count -t $(( $blocks - $block_count )) $1 $blocks`
status=$?
if [ $status -eq 0 ]; then
result=`echo -e "$result""\n""$execution_time: badblocks -b $block_size -c $block_count"`
echo "$execution_time"
fi
block_count=$(( $block_count * 2 ))
done
block_size=$(( $block_size * 2 ))
blocks=$(( $blocks / 2 ))
done
echo "Result:"
echo "$result" | sort --numeric-sort
```

You can use it as:

```
./badblocks_benchmark.sh /dev/sdX
```

If you want to benchmark with only 4k blocks then:

```
#!/bin/bash
blocks=4194304 # 2^22, you can use any 2^x number
block_size=4096
result=""
block_count=1
for j in {1..18}
do
echo -n "Benchmark with block count: $block_count, block size: $block_size: "
execution_time=`/usr/bin/time 2>&1 -f "%Es" badblocks >/dev/null -w -b $block_size -c $block_count -t $(( $blocks - $block_count )) $1 $blocks`
status=$?
if [ $status -eq 0 ]; then
result=`echo -e "$result""\n""$execution_time: badblocks -b $block_size -c $block_count"`
echo "$execution_time"
fi
block_count=$(( $block_count * 2 ))
done
echo "Result:"
echo "$result" | sort --numeric-sort
```

Based on my benchmarks the using only -b 4096 without -c (default 64) is pretty good.

My results (smaller is better): Execution time in seconds and arguments

```
0:28.50s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 512
0:28.50s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 1024
0:28.50s: badblocks -b 512 -c 1024
0:28.50s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 8
0:28.51s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 1024
0:28.51s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 16
0:28.51s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 128
0:28.51s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 64
0:28.52s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 128
0:28.52s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 4
0:28.52s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 64
0:28.53s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 512
0:28.53s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 8
0:28.53s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 32
0:28.53s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 4
0:28.53s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 64
0:28.53s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 16
0:28.53s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 512
0:28.54s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 256
0:28.54s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 32
0:28.54s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 64
0:28.54s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 128
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 1024
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 256
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 256
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 128
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 64
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 8
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 16
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 512 -c 2048
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 512 -c 256
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 1
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 1024
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 16
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 256
0:28.55s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 32
0:28.56s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 2048
0:28.56s: badblocks -b 512 -c 512
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 64
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 128
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 4
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 64
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 512
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 8192
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 256
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 128
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 2048
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 512 -c 16384
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 32
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 65536
0:28.57s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 8
0:28.58s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 2048
0:28.58s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 4096
0:28.58s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 16
0:28.58s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 4096
0:28.58s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 512
0:28.58s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 131072
0:28.59s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 8192
0:28.59s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 256
0:28.59s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 32
0:28.59s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 2
0:28.60s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 128
0:28.60s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 16384
0:28.60s: badblocks -b 512 -c 4096
0:28.60s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 2
0:28.62s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 32
0:28.62s: badblocks -b 512 -c 128
0:28.62s: badblocks -b 512 -c 32768
0:28.63s: badblocks -b 512 -c 8192
0:28.65s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 4096
0:28.67s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 1024
0:28.79s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 2048
0:28.80s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 4
0:28.81s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 2048
0:28.83s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 512
0:28.86s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 512
0:28.89s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 16384
0:28.98s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 256
0:29.09s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 4096
0:29.10s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 8192
0:29.10s: badblocks -b 512 -c 65536
0:29.15s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 32768
0:29.15s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 1024
0:29.34s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 8
0:29.35s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 32
0:29.40s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 2
0:29.41s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 1
0:29.41s: badblocks -b 512 -c 64
0:29.45s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 131072
0:29.46s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 16
0:30.10s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 32768
0:30.13s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 65536
0:30.14s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 4096
0:30.16s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 16384
0:30.16s: badblocks -b 512 -c 131072
0:30.22s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 8192
0:30.23s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 1024
0:30.26s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 2048
0:30.38s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 131072
0:30.38s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 65536
0:30.49s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 32768
0:30.50s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 2048
0:30.50s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 16384
0:30.53s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 4096
0:30.64s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 8192
0:31.01s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 131072
0:31.13s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 8192
0:31.14s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 4096
0:31.17s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 16384
0:31.17s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 65536
0:31.17s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 32768
0:32.20s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 131072
0:32.20s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 8192
0:32.21s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 65536
0:32.24s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 16384
0:32.25s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 32768
0:34.42s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 131072
0:34.57s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 65536
0:34.61s: badblocks -b 32768 -c 32768
0:34.71s: badblocks -b 65536 -c 16384
0:39.08s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 4
0:39.23s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 16
0:39.39s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 2
0:39.56s: badblocks -b 16384 -c 1
0:39.60s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 8
0:39.69s: badblocks -b 512 -c 32
1:02.34s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 8
1:02.45s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 2
1:02.50s: badblocks -b 512 -c 16
1:02.57s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 4
1:03.64s: badblocks -b 8192 -c 1
1:10.68s: badblocks -b 512 -c 4
1:10.69s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 2
1:11.07s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 1
1:14.60s: badblocks -b 512 -c 2
1:15.02s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 1
1:22.85s: badblocks -b 512 -c 1
1:47.08s: badblocks -b 1024 -c 4
1:47.21s: badblocks -b 4096 -c 1
1:47.49s: badblocks -b 2048 -c 2
1:47.96s: badblocks -b 512 -c 8
```