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I've written the following script to set some environment variables when needed.

export BASE=/home/develop/trees
echo $BASE
echo $PATH

Below the command and the results I can see on my terminal: the script runs, but the variables are not set at the end.

~$: ./
~$: echo $BASE


What's wrong? Thanks in advance. Mirko

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up vote 78 down vote accepted

export exports the variable assignment to sub-shells, i.e. shells which are started as child processes of the shell containing the export directive. Your command-line environment is the parent of the script's shell, so it does not see the variable assignment.

You can use the source bash command to execute the script commands in the current shell environment and achieve what you want, e.g.

echo $BASE

Will produce


The . command is a synonym for source which is often seen in scripts.

.     # identical to "source"
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You don't need export to pass variables on to subshells, a subshell is a copy of your current shell, including variables and functions etc. Exported variables gets copied to new processes spawned from the shell, regardless of that process being another shell or not. Secondly, . is the POSIX command for sourcing. Bash adds source as a more readable synonym for it, but you can't rely on it being available in sh. Lastly . ./script instead of . script if you want to avoid surprises. – geirha Jul 18 '11 at 5:55

I often want to set an environment variable without hassle.

Here is what I add to my .bashrc to implement this convenience.

defect() {
    if [ $1 ] && [ -z $2 ]
        eval 'export DEFECT=$1'
        return 0
        echo 'Usage: defect {number}'
        return 1
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When you run a script, it runs in a subshell. Variables are only valid within the context of that subshell. Set them in your .bashrc or .profile and read a basic bash programming manual. The export statement works down hierachy (current shell and all it's subshells) not up as in your example.

Alternatively (if you really want the script to effect the enviroment of your current shell) run it as:

. ./

That causes it to run in your current shell but will not pass variables up the hierarchy either.

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