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during my work I need to constantly add alias commands to bashrc, most of those commands needs to be runed by other users. is there any way I could add alias commands to a bashrc from external source?

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3 Answers 3

up vote 14 down vote accepted

Many config files in users home directory just override/add to ones in the /etc - for example the settings for GIMP in the users home are in ~/.gimp-2.*, which adds to the system-wide config /etc/gimp/2.0.

So for ~/.bashrc, you could edit the system wide config files /etc/bash.bashrc (for functions/aliases) or /etc/profile (for environment stuff) - you can the full list from man bash:

FILES
       /bin/bash
              The bash executable
       /etc/profile
              The systemwide initialization file, executed for login shells
       /etc/bash.bash_logout
              The systemwide login shell cleanup file, executed when a login shell exits
       ~/.bash_profile
              The personal initialization file, executed for login shells
       ~/.bashrc
              The individual per-interactive-shell startup file
       ~/.bash_logout
              The individual login shell cleanup file, executed when a login shell exits
       ~/.inputrc
              Individual readline initialization file

This warning is given for a few Linux systems in the files:

# It's NOT a good idea to change this file unless you know what you
# are doing. It's much better to create a custom.sh shell script in
# /etc/profile.d/ to make custom changes to your environment, as this
# will prevent the need for merging in future updates.

So you could edit those files, you may want to back them up first (cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc-backup for example), or create a shell script in /etc/profile.d - for example you can create one with these commands (with sudo/as root):

touch /etc/profile.d/custom.sh
chmod +x /etc/profile.d/custom.sh

Then open it with nano /etc/profile.d/custom.sh

#!/bin/sh
alias ls='ls -lah'

And check whether it works by seeing if it appears in the output of alias - Note that you may need to logout/login or reboot to see any changes (if you don't want to, running source /etc/profile after any changes might work)

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1  
thank you!, I used your method and it worked perfectly... –  user309584 Jul 27 at 7:17
1  
Plenty of good suggestions there. I think there is one other option, which would be worth mentioning as well. One can edit /etc/skel/.bashrc to change what the contents of ~/.bashrc will look like for newly created users. –  kasperd Jul 27 at 15:08
    
@kasperd - nice idea (you could do a answer on it if you want) –  Wilf Jul 27 at 15:12
    
In my experience, ~/.bash_logout and /etc/bash.bash_logout do not work. :( –  Paddy Landau Jul 29 at 13:56

There's already an accepted answer here, but you might consider using some form of environment modules to handle system-wide configuration of user environments rather than messing with the files in /etc/profile.d, etc. This is especially true if you want to manage this control in one place across lots of shells. Lmod (under very active development), C/TCL modules (the classic solution), or Cmod (lightweight).

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Go to /etc/bash.bashrc

vim /etc/bash.bashrc

and make your alias there.

add your alias in last line.

alias abc="whatever"

That alias will become global for all users.

but for security reasons we dont recommend you that.

there is profile.d directory which contains user-environment files

go to

cd /etc/profile.d/

vim aliases

and add your aliases here.

without effecting your system files. It is safe and right way to work with your environment files.

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