I have been trying for the past couple of days to install Ubuntu 14.04 LTS on my laptop. I have been having problems left and right, but I finally ran into one that I can't figure out.
I put Ubuntu on a USB drive using UNetbootIn and booted (in CSM Mode - UEFI didn't work) into the live session. I ran the installer, which failed. I traced the problem to the hard drive, which had a magnet dropped on it over a year ago, and I reformatted it the long way. I ran the installer again, successfully. Then, I shut down, removed the USB drive, and started my computer (boot sequence: USB, HDD, ...) - and my computer tells me there is no bootable device. I force shut down my computer and reinserted the USB, booted into the live session, and ran Boot Repair. Still can't boot from the HDD.
Coming from a Windows background, I'm a newbie to all things Linux. I don't know what is causing my problem (the hard drive??), and don't know what to look for to help me find out.
Computer: 64 bit Toshiba Satellite C855D Laptop - came with Windows 8 preinstalled, but I removed that hard drive and put in the 500 GB one.
Hard Drive: 500 GB Toshiba MK5065GSX
Boot Repair URL (Maybe irrelevant - can't hurt): http://paste.ubuntu.com/7847577
I took a look at this page (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UEFI) and thought that maybe my installation would work if I converted it to EFI mode (Ubuntu was installed in CSM Mode, because if I tried in UEFI mode, all I got after selecting an option on the boot menu was a blank/black screen). Would that make a difference? If so, how would I go about it? The page says I need to create an EFI partition, which I don't know how to do, and the requirements of mount point and flag mean nothing to me.
So, the short version of my question: Why won't my hard drive boot?
Update: I looked through the folders on my hard drive, and found that the "boot" and "sys" folders were empty! Like I said above, I am new to Linux/Ubuntu, but I assume that these folders are important. I ran the installer again, and now the "boot" folder has some stuff in it (grub folder and a few other files), but the "sys" folder is still empty. I think this is part if not all of my problem; what should I do about it?