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I'm using natty. I'm using classic. I use raw xterms (the latest build, 270, in fact). I've done

xset b 100 
pactl upload-sample /usr/share/sounds/ubuntu/stereo/message.ogg bell.ogg

But I want something more fine grained than this: I want to say "if the bell originated in some particular pseudoterminal make a particular sound, but if it originated in some other particular pseudoterminal, generate some other sound"

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I am quite sure this is not possible without modifications to the source of pulseaudio plugin x11-bell (or perhaps compiz, which might be your windows manager). If configured properly before compilation, xterm rings the bell through XkbBell(3), which passes the display and window to any program listening to XkbBellNotify events. If configured differently, xterm uses XBell(3) which does not pass this information.

Unfortunately, even if xterm is configured properly, both pulseaudio and compiz discard the display and window information (pulseaudio only uses the percentage information to set the volume).

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