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I am trying to set up CUPS to access a network printer. Its IP address was assigned via DHCP by the internet router, which is also the DHCP server. I understand that this address may change from time to time. How can I instruct CUPS to obtain the printer's IP address?

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You have two options here

If you have control over the DHCP server you can set it to assign a static dhcp address (oxymoron I know) to the printer. Most commercial routers I have personally encountered have this feature (see the manual or try to find this in your router configuration)

If you do not have control over address assignments, most printers will either have a hardwired hostname or let you select one for it in the network configuration for the embedded print-server. The hostname should be routable from the local network without any additional configuration. For example if your printer has an assigned hostname of HPLASERJET5900 you would simply be able to use that in your CUPS configuration (ex. HPLASERJET5900:9100 (for HP direct printing). You can use the hostname instead of the IP wherever you are required to input it.

If you have a more complicated network topology, (say printer is on a different subnet) you will have to configure your network so the hostnames are routable from other subnets.

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