You are not guaranteed that you will recover all your files. If you have anything precious in deleted files then the next worth giving it a try.
You are recommended to unmount this partiton frist. Yoo are not recommended to write on partition any more in order to keep data chains at the drive as they are. In other words avoid overwriting. Stop using this drive immediately!
Boot from Live CD or even better from the different drive with installed OS.
Then you should run the software which find and recovers files/data from your physical storage. It is possible still although Operating Systems can not see deleted files due to their references were deleted from File Table, or File Table was corrupted.
This is a filesystem-independent recovery tool for Linux. The latest version is 2.0. Install it in Ubuntu with
sudo apt-get install scalpel
Next is some text editing — the configuration file is /etc/scalpel/scalpel.conf. You will find that everything has been commented out — uncomment the specific file format that you want to recover. For example, if I want to recover a deleted zip file, I will uncomment the .zip file section in scalpel.conf
Next, in a terminal, run:
sudo scalpel [device/directory/file name] -o [output directory]
The output directory, in which you want to store recovered files, should be empty before running Scalpel; otherwise, you will get an error.
This is the fastest utility of the three. It’s installed by the testdisk utility package. If you don’t want to mess with the command-line, this is the best utility for you. Just run photorecas the root user in a terminal, and you will see a nice ncurses-based UI.
Select the device to search, and it will ask you for the partition table type. Select yours; in my case, it’s Intel. Next, you have to select the filesystem or partition of the device disk. Next, it prompts you to choose the file system.
Last, it will ask for an output folder in which to store recovered files. After making a selection, press y to proceed.
Note: The above utilities will not recover replaced files, because in the case of replacement you are replacing the inode itself, so it’s not possible to recover it.