Not really, no. I am not sure about the details but I imagine that the Alt+F2 is simply passing the commands you run to a non-interactive, non-login shell. This type of shell will not have access to aliases, as explained in
When bash is started non-interactively, to run a shell script, for
example, it looks for the variable BASH_ENV in the environment, expands
its value if it appears there, and uses the expanded value as the name
of a file to read and execute. Bash behaves as if the following com‐
mand were executed:
if [ -n "$BASH_ENV" ]; then . "$BASH_ENV"; fi
but the value of the PATH variable is not used to search for the file
So, you might think that you can just set
BASH_ENV to point to a file containing alias definitions. Unfortunately, aliases are not available to non-interactive shells. Again from
Aliases are not expanded when the shell is not interactive, unless the
expand_aliases shell option is set using shopt (see the description of
shopt under SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
You might think that you could add
shopt -s expand_aliases to the file defined by
$BASH_ENV but that won't work because that file will be read but in a different shell.
I know this is confusing, bottom line, you can't make aliases available to the Alt+F2 dialog.
So, since you can't do this with aliases, what you can do is do it with scripts:
sudo gedit /usr/bin/geditm
That will bring up a new
gedit window, add these lines to it and save the file:
Make the script executable:
sudo chmod a+x /usr/bin/geditm
Now, you can hit Alt+F2, write
geditm and that script will be launched which in turn launches
gedit with the desired options.