You can try
sudo apt-get install texlive. The updated packages are usually available in the distribution repo, current version is 2013. However, there are other packages (other than the default install set) that you might need to install depending on the latex package you want to use in your document. You can use Synaptic to search for and install necessary packages.
As for editors, you are spoilt for choice. You can use emacs, kile, etc. You can also use eclipse with texlipse. Even gedit comes with a latex plugin.
There are a couple of other ways to install latex support on your system, which are more involved. You can manually download desired (or missing) packages from CTAN, place them in
$HOME/texmf/tex/latex/. Place the desired package directory there (the directory is expected to contain the
.sty file, and other optional documentation or source files). Then, execute
Or you could download the latest TexLive distribution from the project page, and install using tlmgr.