locate will help you here, you have deleted the files so they are no longer on your file system. You might be able to recover them but it will not be easy.
Files are simply pointers to inodes on the disk. Basically, the file tells the computer which exact part of the disk the data is written to. When you delete a file, the file data are not affected, you can recover it by finding the relevant area of the disk and reading from it. However, since there is no file, there is nothing to stop the computer from writing to that region of the drive. So, to maximize your chances of recovering these files, you need to stop writing to the drive (stop creating new files).
Install a program that can help undelete your files
sudo apt-get install testdisk
You can now use the options presented to you to attempt to undelete your files. I recommend you read the tutorial here to get a better understanding.