How difficult is it to "translate", for example, Windows 7 drivers into what is required for Ubuntu?
Difficult. Besides that you are not even allowed to look at the code since it is protected by copyright laws.
I am looking for drivers for my Epson Stylus CX4300 for Ubuntu 12.04 LTS
In general this is NOT how Linux works. We have -generic- drivers. This means we have a driver that supports a range of printers (and if you printer fits in that range it is supprted though specific options might not be in that driver).
This printer works with the standard printer utility. But you might need to choose a driver for it from the printer installation menu that is close to your printer.
It is not listed on http://gimp-print.sourceforge.net/p_Supported_Printers.php but similiar printers are...
Printer Model Driver Name Epson
Stylus CX4100 escp2-cx4100 Epson
Stylus CX4200 escp2-cx4200 Epson
Stylus CX4400 escp2-cx4400 Epson
Stylus CX4500 escp2-cx450
So install it as a CX4200 or CX4400 and it will print.
The scanner is another matter. You can use this as a guide: How do I get an Epson Stylus DX4450 - All-In-One Printer/Scanner working? but you need to get the printer to work 1st.