Most of us work with a shell prompt. By default most Linux distro displays hostname and current working directory. You can easily customize your prompt to display information important to you.Prompt is control via a special shell variable.
To display current prompt setting use-
Output will be like below , yours would be same if you did not have played with it before-
PS1="User name : "
to make this change permanent use edit /.bashrc by-
and append the line -
export PS1="\e[0;31m[\u@\h \W]\$ \e[m"
If you want to add other things like date and all to prompt let me know i will add other informations.
Your second question is about to change fonts , for that install unity tweak tool either from Ubuntu software center or via terminal as -
sudo apt-get install unity-tweak-tool
and and change the the font and size as per to your disire.
thirdly i dont have any idea to change the color scheme of ubuntu as MAC as, I am not a MAC fan , but yeah you can change your prompt color as explained below-
To set a green color prompt, type the following command:
$ export PS1="\e[0;32m[\u@\h \W]\$ \e[m "
Change the color code as per to your desire from the table shown below.
And if you want to change complete font color for terminal go to terminal - edit - preference and use cutom font color as -
That's what all i know , I dont know how can you change it for patterns as show in your question..
Extra advice - For exactly making it looks like mac use http://www.noobslab.com/2013/10/mac-os-x-mbuntu-1310-pack-is-ready.html .
Hope it helped you.