This question is targeted at mainstream or gamer-grade software-based audio/sound enhancements, found in highly integrated computing and entertainment systems like laptops, tablets and smartphones.
These are mostly marketed with fancy badges of known audio-releated brands on the product or packaging, while being mostly uncertain about the actual implementation or components used and poorly differentiated from the general audio capabilities of the system or device.
- This question is not about actual hardware like speakers. If your headphones are not properly detected, your speakers are assigned wrong, work partially or not at all then your soundcard or chip is not properly detected and you should take a look at troubleshooting audio issues.
- Some subwoofers on laptops require proper LFE remixing, which is currently disabled in PulseAudio.
- This question is also not about enthusiast or recording-grade hardware like recording interfaces, amplifiers and DACs in a variety of formfactors.
- And this question is also not about audio encoding and playback of different audio formats like Dolby Digital, Dolby TrueHD and DTS. Most of these may be subject to patents and licensing, see restricted formats.
If you are just searching for an equalizer, please take a look at this question: Is there any Sound enhancers/equalizer?
Simply speaking: Every feature where you would flip a switch or check a box in a fancy looking interface in Windows that makes the sound change from neutral to fancy.