You can use apt-get and the
--print-uris option to show URI's:
sudo apt-get --print-uris install geany
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
The following NEW packages will be installed:
0 upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 3,242 kB of archives.
After this operation, 8,894 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y
'http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/universe/g/geany/geany-common_1.22+dfsg-2ubuntu1_all.deb' geany-common_1.22+dfsg-2ubuntu1_all.deb 2153292 MD5Sum:e7dc7ca72d4e3b27ebfeadaea9fb3289
'http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/universe/g/geany/geany_1.22+dfsg-2ubuntu1_amd64.deb' geany_1.22+dfsg-2ubuntu1_amd64.deb 1089150 MD5Sum:e201bf70fc0ef23b0f64c410125814cb
This is the simplest method and without installing anything extra.
apt-get man excerpt:
Instead of fetching the files to install their URIs are printed. Each URI will have the path, the
destination file name, the size and the expected MD5 hash. Note that the file name to write to
will not always match the file name on the remote site! This also works with the source and update
commands. When used with the update command the MD5 and size are not included, and it is up to the
user to decompress any compressed files. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Print-URIs.