The maximum output volume as allowed by the slider control in the menu bar is never loud enough. I have to open the Sound Settings and boost it past 100%. This has been the case in 12.04, 12.10, and 13.04. Also, if the volume was set past 100% through sound settings, the use of volume shortcut keys cause the volume to slide back to 100%.
How can I adjust what Ubuntu considers 100% on the Output volume?