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This question already has an answer here:

Using Ubuntu and AskUbuntu, I see all these key words:

  • Linux Kernel (header)
  • Gnome,
  • Grub, Grub 2,
  • Xorg,
  • Unity,
  • Compiz,
  • Metacity,
  • ...

Could I get a view about those components (and probably other main components) to understand how they are linked together (with a small definition of their purpose)?

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marked as duplicate by Boris, chronitis, belacqua, Seth, karel Oct 25 '13 at 7:57

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

Here's an overview of the Ubuntu architecture.

Beyond that just looking them up on Wikipedia or Google would be a good way to understand more and to see which ones relate.

Ubuntu architecture diagram

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good start, where are Gnome, Grub ? in Core or Linux Kernel ? – Boris Oct 19 '13 at 14:08
Considering that your question cannot be answered easily, the graphic is a good start. Though it contains some ... "deceptive marketing"... (Ubuntu One, in the core, srsly). You might want to look up the GNU Operating System in Wikipedia. Gnome isn't there because Ubunutu uses Unity as a desktop, not Gnome. Both are based on the GTK-Toolkit though and share some applications, that's why you hear Gnome mentioned sometimes. Also Gnome is common on other GNU/Linux Distributions than Ubuntu. Grub is the Bootloader which loads Linux, on this graphic you could put it into the Core section. – Paul Hänsch Oct 19 '13 at 15:10
@PaulHänsch I chuckled at the placing of U1 too. – poolie Oct 21 '13 at 7:10

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