I believe this is not a case of XY, and you just want to be able to debug apt-get generally speaking. Under such assumptions here is my answer.
Enabling options in the Debug:: section will cause debugging information to be sent to the standard
error stream of the program utilizing the apt libraries, or enable special program modes that are
primarily useful for debugging the behavior of apt.
Hence, you only need to activate the rules for each of the debugging behaviors of
- Debug::pkgProblemResolver: enables output about the decisions made by dist-upgrade, upgrade,
install, remove, purge.
- Debug::NoLocking: disables all file locking. This can be used to run some operations (for instance,
apt-get -s install) as a non-root user.
- Debug::pkgDPkgPM: prints out the actual command line each time that apt invokes dpkg(1).
Those 3 are the first that the man page recommends, and the first will help you to debug the first error you show. For the second you may need:
- Debug::Acquire::http: Print information related to downloading packages using HTTP. There is also
The man page has many more, you can list them easily using
man apt.conf | grep -A5 -i debug.
All this should be written using the correct syntax and they are accept boolean values:
or if you want to use multiple lines:
If you want to run for only for a instance of apt-get you can use the
sudo apt-get -o Debug::pkgProblemResolver=true -o Debug::Acquire::http=true -f install
Another method is creating your personalized configuration file and load it with the
sudo apt-get -c debug-apt.conf install hello
About changing the exit codes, I believe you can not unless you change the source code.
apt-get is a state of art piece of software, as such it has advanced methods to debug the process without the need of relying of exit codes.