you can use the apt group of commands or aptitude which i recommend above apt. Here is the list to search
To search for something similar to the command you want:
apt-cache search X for example
apt-cache search cheese will give you everything related to cheese.
To show what dependencies and stuff it has you would do
apt-cache show cheese.
Of course to install would be
apt-get install cheese.
aptitude search cheese which will show a more nicer list than apt
aptitude show cheese which again will show a more nicer and friendlier list
aptitude install cheese to install it. Again nicer.
Also aptitude gives more relevant information to what you are looking for, for example:
apt-cache search phi VS
aptitude search phi
apt-cache search sphi VS
aptitude search sphi
If you want a GUI version i recommend Synaptic Package Manager or a simpler Software Center. In Synaptic you can look for something similar to what you are looking for and it will show it to you.