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I edited /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/fr to customize the french-dvorak layout. I then selected french-dvorak layout (instead of french).

Now when I restart Ubuntu, I end up with the non-edited french-dvorak (my changes are ignored).

But if I switch to french, then back to french-dvorak, my changes are now taken into account...

How can I have my custom french-dvorak on startup? Is there some sort of cached version of the keyboard layout?

I don't understand how it can switch me to the official french-dvorak because I changed it, so it should no longer exist.

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It seems Ubuntu stores cached copies of the keyboard layouts in /var/lib/xkb.

To solve this issue, delete the xkm files in /var/lib/xkb: sudo rm /var/lib/xkb/*.xkm and logout and in again.

This solved the issue for me.

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Try with

sudo dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration

and then

sudo dpkg-reconfigure console-setup

I found that in this tutorial and it seems to work for me...

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