The problem has nothing to do with your Advanced Format hard disk. The problem is identified by the following line in your Boot Repair log:
GUID Partition Table detected, but does not seem to be used.
This indicates that the disk used to be a GPT disk, and was incompletely converted to MBR format, presumably by the Windows installer. The easiest immediate solution to this problem is to finish the job. My FixParts program is the easiest way to do this. Run it on the disk and it will complain about the leftover GPT data. Tell it to go ahead with deleting the data and then quit from the program.
Note that your Windows is installed in BIOS mode, so you should be sure to install Ubuntu in the same way. Your installation program might launch in either BIOS mode or in EFI mode. I'm not sure how it will respond if you accidentally boot it in EFI mode. To avoid any possibility of problems, I recommend dropping to a text-mode shell and looking for a directory called
/sys/firmware/efi. If it's present, you've booted in EFI mode, which means you should reboot and select a different boot option to get the computer to boot in BIOS mode instead.