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I'm very new to ubuntu, and i just installed it on my new chromebook acer c7. I never made an authentication password, and when I try to download something, it asks me for it. Please help!

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Ubuntu asks your password for doing system tasks, not for downloading. If you did not setup it, you probably will not be able to change system parameters, because empty passwords are forbidden due to security reasons. You can change your password in system settings, however using passwd tool is more preferrable in your case. – Danatela Jul 16 '13 at 3:22

It is your own password.

The first user you create in Ubuntu is added to the group named admin. Users in this group can perform system tasks by providing their own passwords. So, let's say you have a family with a mother, a father and a child. That's three users. Parents are allowed to install new applications, but the child is not. Since father installs Ubuntu and is the first user, he is automatically allowed to do this. Then he adds mother to the admin group and then she is also allowed to install apps. But they don't have to share a password. When they're asked to authenticate in order to perform system tasks, they provide their own passwords.

This mechanism is called sudo and is very similar to Windows' runas. sudo has been used in Unix-like systems for a very long time and is probably the main inspiration for runas.

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