1) The boot failures on 3.08.0-19-generic appear to be due to a failure to mount the swap partition per the boot log. Though it seems odd that I still get logged-in as a user, just no Unity/menu's as opposed to just a hard blinking cursor fail.
2) The boot fails on 3.08.0-25-generic don't appear to be due to the r/o status of the filesystem as I was questioning. That is how grub mounts them prior to running initramfs. I'll boot and let the system fail, then boot to the install DVD again and see if their are errors in the boot log and dmesg. It is a hard fail when booting normally, and now the boots from recovery mode are failing hard as well.
3) Please close this thread and I'll perform further tests for another thread. Thanks for comments. I remain open to any additional things to try.
When I select "Ubuntu" from the grub menu, the PC grinds for a bit and then hangs with a black screen. I noticed that if I boot to the recovery menu the whole filesystem is read-only (ro). To get the system as read-write (r/w) (usually by enabling the network), I can then select Boot Normally, and the system starts-up fine.
I don't see any errors being reported by dmsg. However, sda6 (my boot partition) appears to get re-mounted with an error when the swap gets activated. Both UUID's are correct per blkid and fstab.
[ 2.508763] EXT4-fs (sda6): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null) [ 15.575996] Adding 4095996k swap on /dev/sda5. Priority:-1 extents:1 across:4095996k [ 15.724285] EXT4-fs (sda6): re-mounted. Opts: errors=remount-ro
sudo blkid -c /dev/null:
/dev/sdb1: LABEL="HP_PAVILION" UUID="24483AB0483A809A" TYPE="ntfs" /dev/sdb2: LABEL="Linux_Xfer" UUID="DEA0189EA0187F69" TYPE="ntfs" /dev/sda1: LABEL="HP" UUID="DEA201E3A201C14F" TYPE="ntfs" /dev/sda4: LABEL="RECOVERY" UUID="909C42D99C42B98C" TYPE="ntfs" /dev/sda5: UUID="56089873-301a-42da-a79e-be2b4d3e3d72" TYPE="swap" /dev/sda6: UUID="c76fa243-7dec-49bb-bd8a-1628794155d1" TYPE="ext4" /dev/sdg: LABEL="ReadyBoost" UUID="7A26617D26613AF1" TYPE="ntfs" /dev/sdh5: LABEL="OnFloor" UUID="022438AF2438A815" TYPE="ntfs"
# /etc/fstab: static file system information. # # Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a # device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices # that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5). # # <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass> # / was on /dev/sda6 during installation #UUID=c76fa243-7dec-49bb-bd8a-1628794155d1 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1 # swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation UUID=56089873-301a-42da-a79e-be2b4d3e3d72 none swap sw 0 0