I am new to the Ubuntu desktop and I have no clue as to download non software center software, I.E.Adobe, Anti- Virus programs, etc...
You can download as normal as in other OS (i.n. Windows). Everything you need is just a browser (i.e. Firefox or Chromium). Also, if you need more, you can find some download managers in Ubuntu Software Center like KGet.
To install and use Windows software, see this post: How can I install Windows software?.