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I have to two operating systems in my computer, Ubuntu and XP. When I try to boot up Ubuntu, I get the following message:

mount:mounting/dev on/root/dev failed:No such file or directory  
mount:mounting/sys on/root/sys failed:No such file or directory  
mount:mounting/proc on/root/proc failed:No such file or directory  
target file system doesn't have/sbin/init noinit found.try passing init=bootarg.  
busy boxv1.13.3(ubuntu shell(ash)enter'help'for alist of built-in commands.

What can I do to boot up Ubuntu?

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Boot from the Ubuntu Live CD and open Terminal.

Run this command: sudo fdisk -l (to get the device name):

radu@Radu: ~ > sudo fdisk -l
[sudo] password for radu: 

Disk /dev/sda: 250.1 GB, 250059350016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders, total 488397168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x004aa9ec

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048      718847      358400    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda2          718848    61431807    30356480    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda3        61432621   463410989   200989184+   f  W95 Ext'd (LBA)
/dev/sda4       463410990   488392064    12490537+  83  Linux
/dev/sda5        61432623   450826239   194696808+   7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda6       450828288   463409151     6290432   82  Linux swap / Solaris

In my case, my Ubuntu is on: /dev/sda4.

Run sudo fsck /dev/sda4 (you should change /dev/sda4 with your device where is installed Ubuntu). Restart the system and boot normally.

Sources: How to Fix an Ubuntu Error: "No init found. Try passing init= bootarg".

Another related answers you can find here: How can I repair grub? (How to get Ubuntu back after installing Windows?).

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