I'm not sure I know what you want to achieve but
jockey-text will let you detect and install drivers from the command line.
It has various arguments where you'd be able to parse the output and feed them back into it via a script. Just look at
If you need to really play around with how it works, it's all Python (with a light dusting of dbus) so you're free to just dive in and hack around with whatever you want.
You can find the scripts in
/usr/lib/python2.6/dist-packages/jockey/ (this path will change in future Ubuntu versions when there's a different Python version being used) and you can see how
jockey-text interfaces with this in its own script here:
I'd suggest inheriting
jockey-text does and working it from there. It's not a simple application though. It's going to take a bit of time to figure out what's actually happening inside that class before you can meaningfully use it.