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Every since I upgraded from 12.10 to 13.04, Ubuntu's been complaining that /boot is full. Now, it's pulling a racket when I'm trying to install packages.

For starters, I've looked around for similar questions, but every time the answers came down to "remove old, unused kernels". Now, I only seem to have the most recent kernel:

$ dpkg -l linux-image-\* | grep ^ii
ii  linux-image-3.8.0-19-generic                  3.8.0-19.29                            amd64        Linux kernel image for version 3.8.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP
ii  linux-image-generic                                             amd64        Generic Linux kernel image

So, removing that one is not really an option, I suppose. I never even recall having created a /boot partition myself, so I'm guessing Ubuntu did that for me during installation. Do I need to increase the partition size running Ubuntu from a USB drive, or is there a better/easier solution?

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Try and find which files in /boot are using up the space, because a single kernel install should only be using a few tens of megabytes. If you run find /boot -size +1M -exec ls -sh {} \; it should list all files >1MB in your boot directory. I suspect there might have been a problem actually removing old kernels or something similar. –  chronitis May 15 '13 at 9:38
Run command: df-h to find out your partition layout. Check content in your /boot directory: ls -l /boot and size of your /boot partition: du -hs /boot/ –  konrad May 15 '13 at 10:06
@chronitis Ah, that appears to be the case: paste2.org/pnBBF98H Is it safe to just remove those files? (And do post that in an answer so I can upvote :) –  Vincent May 15 '13 at 16:03
It should be safe to delete old kernels (check which version you are using with uname -a, but I assume it's the 3.8 one above). I am curious how a bunch of 3.5 ones got missed, but if there are no corresponding packages there isn't really anything you can do but manually delete them. Health warning: be very careful not to get the current kernel or any of grub's files or you'll leave it unbootable. –  chronitis May 15 '13 at 20:06
@chronitis Thanks, that solved it! –  Vincent May 16 '13 at 7:44
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