After much digging, I realized that the source of my confusion is the fact that Ubuntu was installed with WUBI. Also, the multi-boot via UEFI did something weird where it seems only one partition was used. Somehow, Ubuntu and windows boots from a single partition under a single SSD marked as an MBR.
Furthermore, I did not have enough space to do a clone of the root disk before a resize - I needed to resize in place.
These were the instructions I followed, which allowed me to do everything within 5 mintues on my SSD:
I hope this helps others in my same, somewhat unusual situation, in the future. Please feel free to explain why the setup may have been done using a single partition as I set this up a long time ago, and simply chose the path of least resistance to get my laptop up and running. Everything was configured on a new SSD where I had to boot from USB to install.